Thursday, December 26, 2019
As the toga-wearing combatants face each other across an unforgiving circle of sand, they turn toward their laurel-wreathed eminence, snacking on grapes, and bellow: Ã¢â¬Å"Ave, Imperator: Morituri te salutant!Ã¢â¬ This staple of swords-and-sandals fiction, the gladiatorÃ¢â¬â¢s salute to his Emperor, in fact likely never happened. Only a handful of Roman historians, long after the fact, mention the phrase Ã¢â¬â literally, Ã¢â¬Å"Hail, Emperor, those who are about to die salute youÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s little indication that it was in common usage in gladiatorial combat or any other games in ancient Rome. Nonetheless, Ã¢â¬Å"Morituri te salutantÃ¢â¬ has gained considerable currency in both popular culture and academia. Russell Crowe mouths it in the film Ã¢â¬Å"Gladiator,Ã¢â¬ and itÃ¢â¬â¢s used over and over by heavy metal bands (most cheekily by AC/DC, who tweaked it Ã¢â¬Å"For those about to about to rock, we salute you.Ã¢â¬ ). Origin of the Phrase Where did the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"Morituri te salutantÃ¢â¬ and its variations (Ã¢â¬ ¦morituri te salutamus, or Ã¢â¬Å"we salute youÃ¢â¬ ) come from? According to the historian SuetoniusÃ¢â¬â¢s Life of the Divine Claudius, the account of that emperorÃ¢â¬â¢s reign in his compendium The 12 Caesars, written around 112 A.D., it stems from a peculiar event. Claudius had commanded an immense public works project, the draining of Lake Fucino for agricultural land. It took 30,000 men and 11 years to complete. In honor of the feat, the emperor ordered up a naumachia Ã¢â¬â a mock sea-battle involving thousands of men and ships Ã¢â¬â to be held on the lake before it was emptied. The men, thousands of criminals otherwise to be hanged, hailed Claudius thusly: Ã¢â¬Å"Ave, Imperator: Morituri te salutant!Ã¢â¬ upon which the emperor replied Ã¢â¬Å"Aut nonÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Or not.Ã¢â¬ After this, the historians disagree. Suetonius says that the men, believing themselves pardoned by Claudius, refused to fight. The emperor ultimately cajoled and threatened them into sailing against one another. Cassius Dio, who wrote about the event in the 3rd century B.C., said the men merely pretended to fight until Claudius lost patience and commanded them to die. Tacitus mentions the event, some 50 years after it happened, but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mention the plea by the gladiators (or more precisely, naumachiarii). He relates, though, that a large number of prisoners were spared, having fought with the valor of free men. Use in Popular Culture In addition to the above-mentioned films and rock albums, Te morituriÃ¢â¬ ¦ is also invoked in ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness and James JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s Ulysses.
Posted by d at 2:03 PM
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
For years thereÃ¢â¬â¢s been a contended debate on whether or not violence in the media harms children. On television, thousands of murders are being broadcasted to children who are in Elementary School, they are witnesses to hundreds of thousands acts of murder and general violence. In Media Now, ethics come to play and discussions regarding the question who is truly responsible for media effects comes into play? Watching too much violent TV and playing too many violent video games takes a toll on childrens social and physical development, researchers report. It seems as though the more TV kids watch the more they are subjected to isolation and refrain from spending quality time with friends outdoors. Media now discusses the role of producersÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A supposed solution to this is idea, is rendered in the chapter when ideas about teaching children media literacy from a young age, so they can further comprehend the industry and what exactly it is that they are viewing. For it is reality shows such as Ã¢â¬Å"The Real WorldÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"Jersey ShoreÃ¢â¬ that have polluted the minds of innocent children, tempting them to act as the people in television act. The media needs to have better regulation of what is shown on TV for the next generation to come depends on it. In the Article, TV and Video Game Violence Harms Kids, research was reported stating that rising quantities of social isolation was present in children who had higher exposure t violence in the media. Explanations have been given stating that, Ã¢â¬Å"since violent TV is connected to aggressive behaviors in children, it makes it harder for these children to get along with other childrenÃ¢â¬ . Surveys and experimental studies, concluded that children who not only visualized violence but interacted with it, had a greater increase in blood pressure, and were harboring more negativity and hostile emotions. MediaShow MoreRelatedDetermining the Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide by Titration of Saturated Ca(Oh)2(Aq) with Hcl(Aq)2019 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesDetermining the Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide by Titration of Saturated Ca(OH)2(aq) with HCl(aq) Abstract: Titration is a technique that has been used in this experiment to identify the Ksp value of calcium hydroxide in order to determine the extent to which the compound is soluble in water. A known volume of 50 mL of hydrochloric acid, a concentration of 0.05 M hydrochloric acid, a volume of 50 mL calcium hydroxide base, an unknown concentrationRead MoreA Study On The Subject Matter Of Aq And Its Operations1963 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesmatter of AQ and its operations. It is meant to locate the current study in the body of knowledge by establishing the extent to which this subject has been researched. Since a study is only as good as it is capable of contributing to the body of knowledge, it is imperative that the present studyÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to the body of knowledge is ascertained. Otherwise it is a study in vain. Origin and Ideology of AQ One of the issues widely covered in the literature is with regard to the origin of AQ as a terroristRead MoreWhite Like Me Aqs Essay3334 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesWhite Like Me Page 1: The meaning of the first chapters title Ã¢â¬Å"Born to BelongingÃ¢â¬ is that quite literally whites wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be questioned about whether they deserve to be here, living in this condition. They wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be questioned about how they got such wealth and it is easy for them to get this wealth. For example, his grandfather Jacob with his good work ethics was able to come upon success. His success sees normal. However, there are many people of color who have good or better work ethics than JacobRead MoreElectrochemical Behavior And Convoluted Voltammetry Of Carbon Nanotube Modified With Aq And Nb Functional Groups Essay2126 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Electrochemical behavior and convoluted voltammetry of carbon nanotube modified with AQ and NB functional groups Mohamed A.Ghanem,a*Ibrahim S. Elhallag,bAbdullah M. Al-Mayoufa aElectrochemistry Research Group, Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia bChemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt *corresponding author email: email@example.com Abstract. The validity of convolution voltammetry for determinationRead MoreIonic Reactions Lab Essay1010 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Balanced: Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) ( BaSO4 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) ( BaSO4 (s) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) Net Ionic Equation: Ba 2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) ( BaSO4 (s) 2) Well A7 Balanced: Co(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) ( CoOH (s) + Na(NO2)2 (aq) Co 2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) ( CoOH (s) + Na+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) Net Ionic Equation: Co 2+(aq) + OH- (aq) ( Co(OH)2 (s) 3) WellRead MoreCopper Sulphate And Magnesium Sulphate Essay895 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Materials: Metals: Ã¢â¬ ¢ 15 pieces of Cu(s) (copper) Ã¢â¬ ¢ 7 pieces of Mg(s) (magnesium) Ã¢â¬ ¢ 7 pieces of Zn(s) (zinc) Solutions: Ã¢â¬ ¢ H2O(l) distilled water Ã¢â¬ ¢ HCl(aq) hydrochloric acid Ã¢â¬ ¢ CuSO4(aq) copper (II) sulphate Ã¢â¬ ¢ ZnSO4(aq) zinc sulphate Ã¢â¬ ¢ MgSO4(aq) magnesium sulphate Ã¢â¬ ¢ SnCl2(aq) tin (II) chloride Ã¢â¬ ¢ ZnSO4(aq) zinc sulphate Ã¢â¬ ¢ FeSO4(aq) iron (II) sulphate Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tweezers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Two Spot Plates Ã¢â¬ ¢ Distilled Water Bottle Ã¢â¬ ¢ Safety Glasses Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1 piece of paper Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pen / Pencil Procedure: 1. Gathered all the requiredRead MoreIdentifying Unknown Ionic Salts From Zinc Nitrate1041 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1. Na2CO3 (aq) + aq 2Na+(aq) + CO32-(aq) 2. Zn(NO3)2(aq) + aq Zn2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) 3. Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + aq Ba2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) Precipitation equation: 1. Na2CO3 (aq) + 2AgNO3 (aq) NaNO3 (aq) + Ag2CO3 (s) 2. Na2CO3(aq) +Ca(NO3)2(aq) 2NaNO3(aq)+ CaCO3(s) 3. Ba(NO3)2(aq) + CuSO4 (aq) Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + BaSO4 (s) 4. Ba(NO3)2(aq) + CuSO4(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq)+ BaSO4 (s) 5. MgCl2(aq) + 2Na2CO3(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + MgCO3 (s)Read MoreMy Dream1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMgI2(aq) -gt; Mg 2+ (aq) +2OH-(aq) b) Al(NO3)3(aq) -gt; Al3+(aq)+3NO3- (aq) c) HCLO4(aq) -gt; H+ (aq) + ClO4- (aq) d) NaCH3COO(aq) -gt;Na + (aq) + CH3COO-(aq) 4.22) In each reaction, the precipitate is in bold type. a) Ni(NO3)2 (aq) +2NaOH (aq) -gt;+2NaNO3(aq) + NiOH2 (s) b )No precipate, therefore, no reaction. c) Na2S(aq) + CuCH3COO (aq) -gt; CuS(s) + 2NaCH3COO (aq) 4.24) Write balanced net ionic equations amp; Identify spectator ion or ions in each reaction. a) 2Cr3+ (aq) +3CO32-(aq)Read MoreLab 8 Ionic Reactions1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBa(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) Ã¯Æ' BaSO4 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) Ã¯Æ' BaSO4 (s) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) Net Ionic Equation: Ba 2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) Ã¯Æ' BaSO4 (s) 2) Well A7 Balanced: Co(NO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) Ã¯Æ' CoOH (s) + Na(NO2)2 (aq) Co 2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) Ã¯Æ' CoOH (s) + Na+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) Net Ionic Equation: Co 2+(aq) + OH- (aq) Ã¯Æ' Co(OH)2 (s) 3) Well C5 Balanced: Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) Ã¯Æ' FeCO3 (s) + Na2(NO3)2 (aq) FeRead MoreGroup 6 Investigation 7 Tuesday 830am Essay1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesH2SO4(aq)+2NaOH(aq)Ã¯Æ' Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) 2H+(aq) +SO42-(aq)+2Na+(aq) +2OH-(aq)Ã¯Æ' 2Na+(aq) + SO42-(aq) +2H2O(l) H+(aq) + OH-(aq) Ã¯Æ' H2O(l) BaSO4 BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) Ã¯Æ' BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq) Ba2+(aq)+ 2Cl1-(aq) + 2Na+ + SO-4Ã¯Æ' BaSO4(s) + 2Na+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) Ba+(aq) + SO4- (aq) Ã¯Æ' BaSO4(s) AgCl AgNO3(aq) + HCl(aq) Ã¯Æ' AgCl(s) + HNO3(aq) Ag+(aq) + NO-3 (aq) + H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Ã¯Æ' AgCl(s) + H+(aq) + NO-3 (aq) Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Ã¯Æ' AgCl(s) Zn(OH)2 Zn(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaOH-(aq) Ã¯Æ' Zn(OH)2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) Zn2+(aq)
Posted by d at 9:51 AM
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question-express your research Will implementing strategic performance management in an organization improve performancec,in terms of profit, employees development,provide an outline of your research problem, research objectives and research questions? INTRODUCTION Strategic Performance Management is a necessary and crucial vehicle for the managing business in the present unstable business environment. The strategic performance management encompasses various indicator, frameworks and methodologies that help the organization in formulating their strategies and allow the employees to increase strategic insights and permit them to challenge the strategic assumptions, purify the strategic thinking and inform the strategic learning and decision making (Tonchia, 2000). This research paper focuses on the importance of strategic performance management for effectiveness of the organization. RESEARCH PROBLEM Developing an effective strategic performance management system is one of the most challenging tasks in an organization. It has several obstacles which make the overall system complex like: The terminology like the concepts of performance, efficiency or productivity is more often confusing and misused, thus making the performance management system unclear The present performance management measures is huge making the system complex to select the best one There are various factors that affect or impact the productivity of the organization and also influences the performance measure decisions There are various requirement that must be fulfilled for making the strategic performance management system effective It is very important for every company to overcome these obstacles to design a fully suitable and functional performance management system. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Based on the above research problem the main objective of this paper is to identify whether the strategic performance management helps to improve the performance of the organization or not? In order to come to a positive conclusion, the objectives are to identify the advantages of strategic performance management system on effectives of the organization. RESEARCH QUESTIONS The research questions to identify the objectives of the paper are: What is the concept of Strategic performance Management? How strategic performance management system contributes to the success of business? DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES OF THE SELECTED ARTICLES The articles chosen to evaluate according to the chosen research topic are: Sum Chau, V. (2008). The relationship of strategic performance management to team strategy, company performance and organizational effectiveness.Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 14(3/4), pp.113-117. de Waal, A., Kourtit, K. and Nijkamp, P. (2009). The relationship between the level of completeness of a strategic performance management system and perceived advantages and disadvantages.Int Jrnl of Op Prod Mnagemnt, 29(12), pp.1242-1265. Both the articles focuses on the why organization must focus on performance management system. The articles focus on the effectiveness of the organization through the implementation of strategic performance management system. The articles discusses about the relevance of performance management system. However the first article mostly emphasizes on the issues of performance management system and also identifying the reasons behind the lack of effective performance management system. This article identifies that the strategic performance management system recognizes the competitive advantage of the organization. This article deals with the special issues with respect to performance management at top, middle and strategic operations level. The reason behind the increase in the issues of strategic performance management system is that the senior managers are removed from their day to day activities and this creating a disconnection between the organization and the senior management. Acco rding to Witcher and Chau (2007) due to disconnection among the senior management and rest of the business firm, this will become difficult in addressing all the issues if the senior management is not involved in the strategic activities. This will lead to poor implementation of performance management systems (Sum Chau, 2008). The second article focuses on identifying the existing relationship among the completeness level of implementation of strategic performance system (SPM) and its impact on the organization. This article focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of SPM. The author suggests that the implementation of SPM have positive impact on the net profit, sales and revenue of the organization. It also helps to improve the organizational communication and increases collaboration. It also helps to strengthen the organizational focus, better the process of information exchange and sharing of knowledge. This also helps to improve the process of decision making. Overall, the SPM helps to increase the satisfaction level of employee, better the planning process, improve the quality of product and services and stronger the orientation process. However the author also discusses that if SPM is not implemented effectively then the organization can face huge internal competition. The process is bureaucratic and too expensive. In this process the performance indicators are subjective in nature creating it as unreliable. From advantages of this process management can learn about the completeness of SPM implementation and can convince the personnel about its benefits to the organization (de Waal, Kourtit and Nijkamp, 2009). ANALYSIS OF THE METHODOLOGY Research methodology is the process of utilizing various methods to collect data for making an effective decision of business. The above mentioned articles have also utilized some of the research methods to make an effective conclusion about impact of strategic performance management system on the organization. In the article The relationship of strategic performance management to team strategy, company performance and organizational effectiveness, the author has focused on secondary data collection method. The research is carried based on five different case studies which comprises of issues of team performance management. All the five articles deals with the issues of performance management at strategic operation level, middle management level and top management level. The articles also discuss the impact of SPM on the performance of the company, team strategy and effectiveness of the organization. This case study method helps the author to analyze the real world problem of SPM using five case studies. From these five articles it is concluded that organization must focus on achieving the strategic performance management system which would help to improve the performance of the company. These case studies have helped to close the gap and bring attention about the team performance managemen t system. In the article The relationship between the level of completeness of a strategic performance management system and perceived advantages and disadvantages, the author focuses on primary data collection through quantitative data analysis and also focuses on secondary data using the quantitative data analysis. The qualitative data is gathered through literature review. It discusses the use and implementation of SPM and is tested by collecting the quantitative data by conducting 52 interviews from 17 Dutch organizations. The article concludes that there exists relationship between the benefits that the organizations have received from the implementation of SPM and the completeness of the implementation. The article confirms that implementation of properly designed SPM and its usage helps to improve the organizational results. The case study method provides a holistic and detail investigation of the research and different measurement techniques can be utilized in this process. However, case study method can be utilized only for small data sets. Here the real life data means that the organization or the organizations chosen as a data source. Since the data revolves around small sets thus proper empirical techniques cannot be used which might make it difficult to meet the statistical significance requirements (Remenyi, 2012). Alternatively, utilizing the mixed method that is both qualitative and quantitative method, the researcher can utilize the strengths of one method to overcome the weakness of the other method. This can provide strong evidence for deriving the conclusion through corroboration and convergence of findings. This helps to increase the generalizability of the findings. However it is a time consuming method. It can become difficult for a single researcher to conduct the mixed method research ( Axinn and Pearce, 2006). Thus based on the advantages and disadvantages of the research methods, the researcher has decided to follow the mixed method approach as this would help to make an effective conclusion about the implementation of SPM and its benefits on the organization. The researcher will make sure that the sample considered is large as it would give more precise and clear result. REFERENCES Axinn, W. and Pearce, L. (2006). Mixed method data collection strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. de Waal, A., Kourtit, K. and Nijkamp, P. (2009). The relationship between the level of completeness of a strategic performance management system and perceived advantages and disadvantages. Int Jrnl of Op Prod Mnagemnt, 29(12), pp.1242-1265. Remenyi, D. (2012). Case study research. Reading, UK: Academic Publishing International. Sum Chau, V. (2008). The relationship of strategic performance management to team strategy, company performance and organizational effectiveness. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 14(3/4), pp.113-117. Tonchia, S. (2000). Linking performance measurement system to strategic and organisational choices. International Journal of Business Performance Management, 2(1/2/3), p.15. Witcher, B. and Sum Chau, V. (2007). Balanced scorecard and hoshin kanri : dynamic capabilities for managing strategic fit. Management Decision, 45(3), pp.518-538.
Posted by d at 6:34 AM
Monday, December 2, 2019
Local and state governments require revenue in order to facilitate their operations. Government expenditure is the monies the government requires to finance its functions while revenue is their income. Generally, government expenditure is classified into three major classes; government final consumption, government gross capital formation, and transfer payments.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Revenue and expenditure categories of local and state governments in the United States specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Government final consumption and gross capital formation form the largest part of state and local governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s gross domestic product. Moreover, the expenditure of local and state governments is financed by government revenue. The local government acquires revenue through taxes and non-taxes channels; non-tax revenue includes government owned corporations, fees, licenses, or sovereign wealt h funds. The state government can also finance its operations with borrowed money through grants and loans. Categories of revenue and expenditure Expenditure State and local governments have to provide different goods and services to the public. These services and goods include transportation system, water and sanitation, health care and education and payment of pensions and other benefits. Generally, the above expenditures are classified in three categories, consumption, investment, and transfer payments. Government final consumption: According to Organization for Economic cooperation (2010, p.42), Ã¢â¬Å"government final consumption expenditure consists of expenses incurred by the government in the production of non-market final goods and services.Ã¢â¬ Primarily, the government spending on goods and services that are used for direct benefit of its population includes defense, provision of health care, water and sanitation and education. It is further broken down into two catego ries; the value of goods produced by the government itself and purchases of goods and services produced by the other market producers and supplied to the community. In addition, consumption expenditure constitutes the largest share of expenditures; they include purchases of nondurable and durable goods. Non durable goods include food and clothing while durable products include appliances and vehicles. Government gross capital formation: Government gross capital formation is also referred to as investment expenditure and it consists of two types, expenditure on fixed investment goods and inventory investment. Fixed investment goods are goods that are used in the long term examples are factories, commercial properties, and purchase of equipment.Advertising Looking for research paper on public administration? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Part of fixed investment expenditure involves acquisition of new asset or repairs and main tenance, as well as depreciation charge of the already in use asset. Investment expenditure on institutional sector includes transport infrastructure and public buildings like school and hospitals (Organization for Economic cooperation, 2010, p.44). On the other hand, inventory goods are goods waiting to be sold at the end of the year; they are considered as investment expenditure because they Ã¢â¬Å"eventually yield a flow of consumption or production servicesÃ¢â¬ (Organization for Economic cooperation, 2010, p.44). Government Transfer payments: According to Baumol and Blinder (2008, p.225), Ã¢â¬Å"government transfer payments is the expenditure the local and state governments incur through payments that do not involve direct production of or goods or service.Ã¢â¬ Transfer payments are given to persons in order to assist them in basic living requirements; examples of transfer payments are social welfare, food stamps, and disability and retirement benefits. In addition, the ne ed for transfer payments increases whenever there is a social or economic crisis. However, some transfer payments are temporal while others are permanent; for example, unemployment benefits are temporal while pension payment is permanent. Revenue Local and state governments get their revenue through taxation and other non-taxation methods. However, taxation is the most reliable method of revenue collection; nevertheless, there are other sources like direct payment from federal governments, user fees, service charges, licensing, and lottery and gambling proceeds (Brunori, 2005, p.113). Tax: Tax is a financial charge imposed on individuals or legal entities in a state. Taxation may be done directly or indirectly and the rates differ from one state to another. The governments levy different taxes on income, wealth and consumption; income tax and social security tax constitute the largest part of state governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue while local governments depend on property and wealth tax es. Taxes under consumption are sale and excise tax; sale tax is tax paid on basic goods in the market while excise tax is tax on luxury goods. Moreover, property tax is the levy imposed on homes, business premises, and land depending on their net worth at the given time of valuation. Non-tax sources: According to Brunori (2005, p.114), Ã¢â¬Å"the use of non tax sources for revenue collection has developed over the past decade, it is approximated that $747 billion was collected from non tax sources in 2003.Ã¢â¬ Primarily, the local and state governments receive funds from the federals governments; however, they also obtain funds through fees like licenses, grants, unclaimed property, and loans and bonds issue. Inter governmental funds are funds collected from other regions, not in the area they are used to provide services.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Revenue and expenditure categories of local and state governments in the United States specifi cally for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Non-tax source are very important; however, they are unreliable sources of revenue. For instance, gambling and lotteries contribute a small portion to state revenue; it is approximated that New York raised $13.7 billion in 2003 from state run lotteries, about one percent of the total state economy (Brunori, 2005, p.117). Finally, the governments can obtain revenue through grants or loans from other states or organization. Trends and changes in revenue and expenditure categories In the past years, there have been some notable changes in revenue and expenditure, which have either helped or undermined the service delivery by the state and local governments. Generally, local and state governments do not control tax rates and property tax allocation (Garcea, 2008, p.13). According to Brunori (2005, p.116), Ã¢â¬Å"Local and state governments cannot spend monies from the federal government as they wish hence reducin g state control.Ã¢â¬ In addition, there is tight regulation on tax relief and the transfer expenditure to vet the people who claim these benefits. Moreover, issuing of grants and loans to local and state governments is regulated by higher forms of governments. Factors likely to affect revenue and expenditure categories and why Some factors that affect the revenue and expenditure categories are; economic situation, mandate from higher levels of governments, policies and natural disasters (Honadle, Ciggler, Costa, 2004 p.5). On the other hand, economic meltdown causes people to loss employment and business to collapse, and as a result, state and local government loss revenue from income tax, sale tax, and licensing of businesses. During an economic meltdown, the value of property goes down resulting to low revenue from property taxation, while expenditure increases due to increased number of unemployed people seeking food stamps or unemployment benefits. Government policies and reg ulations on the mandate of state and local governments affect investment expenditure. In addition, regulation on transfer fund from the federal government and interstate funds can considerably lower the revenue of governments. The unpredictability of the federal funds to state and local governments affects the planning of revenue and expenditure. Neighboring state tax policy could make business and individuals to move from one state to another. Generally, business people like areas where the environment is business friendly; thus, an influx on people in a state would result to higher revenue collection and at the same time, higher expenditure in government consumption expenditure.Advertising Looking for research paper on public administration? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conversely, natural calamities can inflate the expenditure, leading to low revenue collection due to damage of infrastructure. In addition, an increase in life expectancy affects the transfer payments to pensioners in a state. Moreover, globalization of the market place will make administration taxes to companies difficult and more expensive. Measures of reducing the impact of disruption and why Disruption of revenue collection and expenditure should be avoided since it could result in lack of vital goods and services. For instance, schools and health care services must not be disrupted. Besides, local and state governments are labour intensive; hence, they need funds to pay their workforce. Thus, functional sharing arrangements between local and state governments can help to reduce the impact of reduced revenue (Garcea, 2008, p.13). From another perspective, two neighboring states can share the police force unit or any other service, and ensure that there are better policies on all ocation and use of federal funds so as essential services are delivered to the public. In addition, local and state governments should develop a strong investment program, while the authority should make policies that would enable for quick recovery and avoid continued disruption. Conclusion Local and state governments collect revenue through taxation and other non taxation methods. Some taxes levied on individuals and business are property, excise, sale, and income tax while some non-taxation methods include charges, fees, licensing and transfer revenue from the federal government. Categories of expenditure include; consumption, investment and transfer payments, with the consumption and investment expenditures taking up most of the revenue. Changes in revenue and expenditure include regulation of tax rates and allocation of revenue. Factors that can affect expenditure and revenue categories are economic melt down, natural disasters, tax policy in the neighboring state and legislati on by higher governments. To reduce the impact of revenue disruption, measures can be put in place including proper policies and functional sharing of duties between states. References Baumol, W. Blinder, A. (2008). Macroeconomic: Principles and Policy. OH: Cengage Learning. Brunori, D. (2005). State tax policy: a political perspective. Washington: The urban Institute publishing. Web. Garcea, J. (2008). Local government reform: a comparative analysis of advanced Aglo-American countries. NY: Edward Elgar publishing. Web. Honadle, B., Cigler, B. Costa, J. (2004). Fiscal health for local governments: an introduction to concepts, practical analysis and strategies. NY: US Academic Press. Web. Organization for Economic Cooperation. (2010). National Accounts at a Glance 2009. NY: OECD publishing. Web. This research paper on Revenue and expenditure categories of local and state governments in the United States was written and submitted by user Darg0Kt0r to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
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