Wednesday, July 31, 2019

The Great Gatsby Children’s Story

Once upon a time in a faraway forest called West Egg, there lived a friendly group of happy chipmunks. Their names were Daisy, Myrtle, Tom and Jay. PAGE 2 At this time, winter was coming and the friends were busy gathering acorns. PAGE 3 One day, when the chipmunks were gathered to admire Myrtle’s collection, she realized they were missing! (â€Å"Where are all my acorns?! †) PAGE 4 One by one, all the chipmunks realized that their acorns had been stolen. PAGE 5 A town meeting was called and the chipmunks agreed to help each other by racing to gather more acorns.The winner that found the most acorns would get to ride at the front of the Harvest Parade. PAGE 6 Tom was determined to win. He was on his way to tell his best friend Daisy about his plan when he ran into Myrtle. PAGE 7 Tom, seeing how upset Myrtle was, offered to help and be on her team. Daisy could easily find acorns without him! (Myrtle: I’ll never find as many acorns as you! ) PAGE 8 Meanwhile, Daisy sat alone in her room waiting for Tom to come over with his plans†¦ PAGE 9 Finally, Daisy decided to go find Jay to play and ask if he wanted to find acorns together. Daisy: Well, if Tom’s not coming, I’m going to find Jay) PAGE 10 The race to win was on between the two teams! (Picture of Tom and Myrtle together on one side, and Daisy and Jay together on the other) PAGE 11 Tom and Myrtle started searching for acorns in East Egg first thing in the morning. They didn’t have much luck finding acorns. They looked high and low. In the park. By the lake. Around the forest. And even high up in the trees! (pictures of the different places and some acorns; sentences scattered along the page) PAGE 12 Daisy overslept on the first day of the competition, but Jay was prepared and on time.While he waited for Daisy to fix her hair, he made cookies and packed lunch. PAGE 13 When the team finally left the house, they hurried on their way and found lots of acorns! They look ed high and low. In the park. By the lake. Around the forest. And even high up in the trees! (copy page 11 format) PAGE 14 A week went by and Tom and Myrtle were getting upset because they STILL weren’t finding any acorns. PAGE 15 Meanwhile, Jay and Daisy had a whole basket full! PAGE

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Questions concerning criminal law Essay

i. What are the specific aims & purposes of the criminal law? To what extent does the criminal law control behaviour? Do you believe that the law is too restrictive or not restrictive enough? The specific aims and purposes of criminal law is to punish criminals, and prevent people from becoming future criminals by using deterrence. â€Å"Having a criminal justice system that imposes liability and punishment for violations deter.† (Paul H. Robinson, John M. Darley, Does Criminal Law Deter? A Behavioural Science Investigation, Oxford Journal of Legal studies, volume 24, No. 2 (2004), pp. 173-205). Criminal law intimidates citizens because most people won’t want to be arrested or have a write up on their personal record. Criminal law controls behaviour but only outlines what a good citizen should be doing, by creating laws. â€Å"More precisely, the term refers to substantive criminal law – a body of law that prohibits certain kinds of conduct and imposes sanctions for unlawful behaviour.† (The Canadian Encyclopedia, Criminal Law,, para. 1.) Having laws and not enforcing them is pointless, so by creating a law you need to enforce it strictly so people stop committing the offence. Like in Alberta and other parts of Canada the Distracted Driving law was in full effect and anyone caught texting and driving or anything along those lines was given a major demerit dock, and a hefty ticket you need to pay. By doing this it enforces the law and creates that thought in the back of the citizens head that says â€Å"should I do that? What will happen if I text and drive and get caught?†. However, most criminals don’t have that subconscious thought and don’t care if they get caught breaking the law, that’s why so many criminals are re-offenders. Laws are either questions concerning criminal justice and safety too restrictive or not restrictive enough depending on where you live. Some people can be considered criminals in Canada, but be doing family honour killings in their homeland. Having pretty much non existent drinking ages in  Europe to the United States where you have to be 21 is absolutely unreasonable, and depending on where you live your laws can either be too restrictive, like in the US, or not restrictive at all, in Europe. There should be a universal drinking age of 16, and the driving age should be raised. Allowing teenagers and young adults to drive before they learn the effects of drinking is not a good policy. Too many citizens think because they have been driving for 2 – 4 years think that they can drive drunk which is not the case and creates a big problem. Among 18 – 24 year olds, they have the highest percentage in Canada for driving under the influence per 100,000 licensed patrons. Universally, if you lowered the drinking age and heightened the driving age to 21, hopefully less people would be drinking and driving because more people would have experienced the effect of alcohol before driving. If this actually worked then maybe less and less police officers would need to worry about check stops and be less restrictive on certain laws and would be able to focus on other important things around Canada. questions concerning criminal justice and safety  ii. Assuming that males are more violent than females; does that mean that crime has a biological rather than a social basis (because males & females share a similar environment)?  Statistically males made up for more then five times the amount of crime then females did in 2005. (Women and The Criminal Justice System, Males aren’t biologically programmed to be more physically aggressive and commit more crimes, but when people say males commit more crimes because of testosterone, that is crazy because women have testosterone in their body’s too. Males commit more crimes because most males want to assert their â€Å"macho – ness† to females and prove that they are manly. When males are 20-25 years old, the highest category for committing a crime, they have no other ways to show females how manly they are other then fighting and committing crimes. I think the reason why older males don’t commit more crimes compared to the younger generation is because older folk have other ways to show their manliness like their job, how much money they have, or the kind of car that they drive. That being said crime has nothing to do with biology, but it  comes down to men trying to show how powerful they are in an attempt to â€Å"woo† a female. Concerning the fact that males and females sharing the same environment but males being â€Å"more violent†, I think the reason is because males aren’t as protected as females are. During high school kids always hear about fathers or brothers who will protect their child or sibling from anyone that hurts them in any way. You never hear a sister or a mother saying that about their questions concerning criminal justice and safety son. (Introduction to Criminology, Lecture 3, September 23, 2013, Professor Jan Stanners.) So another factor about females being less aggressive is the fact that they are protected more and almost restricted from certain things because more people worry about girls then boys. Studies are also showing that women’s crime rates are increasing quite noticeably while males are slowly dropping. I think this is because since the 1950-80’s women’s roles were typically stay at home moms taking care of the children, etc. But now women have a lot more freedoms and have jobs and can they can now do whatever they please just like males, so I think that’s why female crime rates are rising steadily. Also, according to the statscan government website it shows that females have a higher victimization rate between the ages of 18-44, which we expect because men are â€Å"more violent†. However after that age range the males become the more victimized group which I found very interesting because that in itself refutes any debate of men being more violent because of testosterone, because no matter how old you are your body is still producing testosterone. questions concerning criminal justice and safety iii. Do you agree with the assessment that for young people, a school is one of the most dangerous locations in a community? Did you find your high school to be a dangerous environment?  Ã¢â‚¬Å"According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 17 teens were killed at schools and five children killed themselves in the year ending June 30, 2002.† (School Safety, School can be a very dangerous place for teenagers depending on the area of town that they live in. In Calgary high schools are more safe down south then in  Forrest Lawn just because of the type of families and people there are around influencing the teenagers. The type of influence a teenager gets can lead them on the path to becoming a bully. At the Columbine shootings two teenagers shot and killed many innocent teenagers, in Michael Moores documentary it is shown that the two students were bullied occasionally which may have caused them to act out and shoot their peers. (Michael Moore, Bowling For Columbine, 2002.) As far as schools being one of the most dangerous areas in the community I find that hard to believe. Around schools you have teachers and counsellors supervising you and helping you throughout your 3 years so it can’t be as dangerous as people make it out to be. However the activities that take place outside of school I think are the most violent ones. They involve students and peers that you’ve met through high school and I believe people are getting those two things mixed up, but that’s just from personal experience because inside of my high school was relatively safe. We had a lockdown where a student from another school came into ours with a knife looking for a student in one of the classes but the police came and handled the situation accordingly and our teachers were well prepared questions concerning criminal justice and safety and practiced lockdowns on a regular basis. Later we all found out this situation happened because of activity outside of school. My personal experiences in high school I never had a physical altercation with anyone but in grades 10 and 11 a lot of students would make organized fights after school and a big crowd would join. I think this relates to the previous question on men being more violent, because teenagers have no other way to assert their manliness to friends and girls other then to fight and beat someone up. I think the most dangerous places in our rural communities is back alleys at night time walking home from drinking at a friends or at a bar. You make yourself an easy target being drunk and that’s when criminals take the chance to mug you. By being at school it’s really hard to make yourself a big target with teaching staff all around you. To sum everything up I do not agree that schools are the most dangerous place for young people. In some instanced even your own home could be the most dangerous place to be and school could be like an escape for some students. questions concerning criminal justice and safety Reference Page The Canadian Encyclopedia, Criminal Law,, para. 1. Michael Moore, Bowling For Columbine, 2002.  Paul H. Robinson, John M. Darley, Does Criminal Law Deter? A Behavioural Science Investigation, Oxford Journal of Legal studies, volume 24, No. 2 (2004), pp. 173-205. School Safety, Women and The Criminal Justice System,

Lush Marketing Plan

Program: MSC Management MARKETING MANAGEMENT [pic] ASSESSMENT Submitted to: Programme Administrator: Carrie flitcroft Lecturer: Nichole Dunlop Submitted by: DATED: 19th APRIL 2012 Executive Summary This report is to provide a marketing plan and analysis of entering in uk market for lush cosmetic’s products over the next three years. This report explores and considers the various factors which impacts lush cosmetic’s product in term of entering the market.There are methods which can be taken with this organisation, were researched; the main focus will be to: †¢ Spread information about fresh handmade cosmetic product. †¢ Advertise existing products and introduce new products to the market. †¢ Expand market by existing and new products such as massage bars, shampoo bars, kids soaps, naked products †¢ Expand sales through online retailing websites, high street store. The main focus of this report is growth a three-year Marketing Plan of lush products wh ich will improve the sale of company in the UK market.The main elements of this report will include: †¢ Introduction about lush and clarify lush’s position †¢ Analyse the UK structure market †¢ Marketing objectives †¢ Marketing strategy †¢ Strategic implementation and control 1. lush and where is lush now? 2. 1 Lush Lush is a handmade cosmetics company headquartered in Poole, Dorset in the UK. In 1994, husband and wife Mark and Mo Constantine opened the first Lush store in Poole under the name Cosmetic House Limited. Lush adopted its current name on 10 April 1995.There are now more than 600 stores in 43 countries. Lush produces and sells a variety of handmade products, including soaps, shower gels, shampoos and hair conditioners, bath bombs, bubble bars, hand and body lotions and face masks. Lush uses fruits and vegetables, essential oils, synthetic ingredients, honey and beeswax in their products. In addition to not using animal fats in their product s, they are also against animal testing and perform tests solely with volunteers instead. As the company was in its early stages it has limited distribution.Now, Lush sells products in UK France, USA, Philippine, Australia and more than 38 countries, however its objective is expand in the future. 2. 2. The SWOT With the SWOT Analysis, the paper describes Lush’s internal and external environment which essential for its process of strategic planning. From a SWOT Analysis† a marketing strategy can be developed using corporate strengths, avoiding corporate weaknesses, benefits form the future opportunities and regards of future risks† (Bohm, 2009). Strength: |Weakness: | |All the products are fresh handmade |Low cash flow | |Lush only focus on making ethical products |Less marketing and advertising | |Reduce packing cost |Less outlet and store | |Environmental green products, close to nature. Prices are high considering the position they are | |Less or no artificia l ingredients | | |Wide range of products | | |Unique display style | |Opportunities: |Threats: | |People wish to use fruit and vegetable made skin care products |Less knowledge for use of lush products | |Using recycled material will increase interst from customers |Strong competition | |Against animal testing increase customer loylty |Lowing speed to made products | |Lush can develop further with in the uk and many more countries | | |Very few compatitors as sole ethical companies | | 2. 3. Lush position Through SWOT analysis (Appendix 1), Lush has low market share but high grow rate.Lush’ position can be seen in Boston Consulting Group Matrix (Figure 1). Figure 1: Lush’s position in Boston Matrix [pic] showing lush position in market Clarifying the lush’s position is very useful and essential for them to orient their objectives and do marketing planning and strategy. â€Å"There is no point deciding where your business is going until you have actually dec ided with great clarifies where we are now† (Sir John Harvey Jones, ex ICI chairman). 3. The UK structure market 3. 1. Market analysis Market analysis is determining the attractiveness of a market and looking for growth opportunities and threats related to the strengths and weaknesses of the company (Aaker, 2008). 3. 2. Customer analysis The most strategic market-planning contexts, the first logical step is to analyse the customers†(Aaker and McLoughlin, 2010, pp 26). Customer analysis is one of the important factors used to create the success of a firm as it enables firms to understand the current activities of customer and their behaviour, which helps firm to increase profits and competitive advantage in the market (Paley, 2006). Hand made cosmetics is a fairly new market which is up coming within the cosmetics industry, where the issues of production and trading can be complex. According from the survey of Mintel (2007-2008), 60% customers thinks it is important that a company acts ethically (See appendix 3). 4. The marketing objectives of lush 4. 1. MissionMission and Vision Fresh handmade cosmetics lush believes in making effective products out of fresh fruit and vegetables , the finest essential oils and safe synthetics, without animal ingredients , and in writing the quantitative ingredient list on the outside †¦ in buying only from companies that test for safety without the involvement of animals and in testing our products on humans †¦ in making our own fresh products by hand, printing its own labels and making its own fragrances †¦ in long candlelit baths, sharing showers, massage and filling the World with perfume and the right to make mistakes, lose everything and start again †¦ that its products should be good value, that we should make a profit and that the customer is always right †¦ that words like â€Å"fresh† and â€Å"organic† have honest meaning beyond marketing 4. 2. lush’s objectiv e in the next 3 years A company often plan its objectives based on the existing products and new products in existing market and new market.However, in limited report, my study only focuses on analyzing marketing strategy of Lush in the UK market. 4. 2. 1. New opportunities online Selling online may the huge potential market for Lush to afford in the UK market. The internet has been hugely important as in many other areas of retail. About 70% adults use shopping online, especially the ages from 25 to 34, the rate is around 85% (See appendix 4). In addition to online retailers, there is a growing number of websites and blogs devoted to green issues. Many of the sites give full detailed information about ethical production and the different ingredients used, websites helps to increase selling by improving knowledge about ethic products for consumers.Lush can use their own website to sell products or through big website such as Amazon or Argos in the UK. 5. Marketing Strategy If Lush w ants to achieve the above objectives, its products need to be created a successful mix of: the right product, sold at the right price, in the right place and using the most suitable promotion (Marketing Mix’ 4P). 5. 1. Promotion strategy â€Å"A retailer could stock the most attractive merchandise priced very competitively and have a convenient location but still fail to attract customers if he or she did not communication with them† (Cox& Britain, 2000). The UK structure market analyze (Part 3. 1) stated that the issue of handmade cosmatics products complicated and not all of the UK customers understand it.Therefore, promotion should be the first step Lush need to carry out before they can sell their products. The customer analyze (Part 3. 2) indicates that if Lush wants to sell their fresh hand made products, they should improve knowledge about handmade production for the customers. And the success of the Lush’s promotion are informing, persuading and remindin g customers about Lush’s handmade products through advertising, publicity, personal selling and sales promotion. a. Advertising Advertising is a non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products, services, or ideas by identified sponsors through various media (Kotler, 1999).The objectives of lush’s advertising in the first year is bring lush image to the UK customer awareness. In the UK, advertising by press is popular, about 29. 6% total share in 2009 (See appendix 7). However, internet advertising has quickly developed, increase 39. 5% in 2008 (See Appendix 6). As a result, lush should focus on two advertising ways: press and internet. b. Sale promotion In short-term incentives, lush can encourage consumers by promotion activities. For example, in special holiday such as Christmas, mother’s day, valentine’s day, season sale, Lush sells online with free shipping, or discount price for old season p roducts. c. Personal sellingPersonal selling is oral communication with potential buyers of a product with the seller’s representative through face to face or telephone contact to gain benefit. Personal selling is an option help lush to improve knowledge about handmade cosmetics for the UK customers. d. Public relations (PR) LUSH has generously supported seven Small Change Fund projects in full, through the Charity Pot Program. 100% of the retail price (minus taxes) of LUSH Charity Pot hand and body cream goes directly to carefully selected charities around the world that support animal rights, environmental protection, and humanitarian concerns That is an advantage of lush to create a good image in public.Hence, public relation activities are essential in building lush brand in the UK market. Distribution strategy Distribution strategy (place strategy) refers to how an organisation will distribute the product or service they are offering to the end user. Efficient and effect ive distribution is important if the organisation is to meet its overall marketing objectives. There are three main common distribution strategies included intensive distribution, exclusive distribution and selective distribution (Hollensen, 2008). With the specific characteristics of handmade cosmetics products, lush should choose the second or the third: exclusive or selective distribution. a. Selling online (exclusive distribution)As the paper analyses in the lush objectives (Part 4. 2. 1), selling online is potential distribution channel for lush. Thus, firstly, lush need to develop their website to become more attractive with customers. Consumers can conveniently shopping with lush website like easily select, purchase even exchange or refund. The website keeps continuously updating new products and offers. Secondly, lush can sell their products through other famous shopping websites in the UK such as Amazon or Argos. Thanks to three websites, customer can faster know lush produ cts. b. Opening shops in England (selective distribution) Recently, lush only sells through 100 shops in England.But in the UK, there is high rate of consumers buying cosmetic products in high street and department store, 56% and 32% (Figure 3) Figure 3: Where they regularly buy cosmetics products, November 2000 Base: 1,526 adults aged 15+ [pic] Source: Ipsos MORI/Mintel As a result, lush should open their own more lush shops in some of big cities in England. Opening the shops in England, lush can realise in the second years of strategy. The first years, lush should focus on develop selling online and promote brand. 5. 3. Product strategy A product is anything that is offered to a market for attention acquisition, use or consumption and that might satisfy a need or want (Kotler et al, 2008). a. Developing existing product: naked solid bars Because of the reasons which were introduced in lush’s objectives (part 4. . 2), the target product which is chose as the most important p roduct in the UK market is naked solid bar products. Although lush can introduce and sell all their collection such as bathing bars, massage bars and henna bars but in the 3 years of objectives the main product lush should focus on is only naked solid bars. Product design Recently, lush has limited the number of design, naked conditioning bars, shampoo bars. lush should invest to variety products not only particular solid bars but also some liquid kind of hand made products. Product quality lush products are guaranteed high quality made from fruit and vegetables. Product featureAll of lush products are fresh handmade from fruit and vegetables. It makes the specific for Lush’s products. That is also the reason why the price is often higher. Brand Lush now is not famous brand but Lush can promote itself like Oxfam as ethical brand. b. Experimenting new product: makeup products Based on the analysis in lush objectives (part 4. 2. 3), lush can experiment new product makeup produc ts in the UK market in the third years of strategy. Preparing introduce makeup in the third year, lush need to research the UK makeup market, customer analysis, and designing in the first two years. 5. 4. Price strategy Pricing has greatest impact on immediate performance of the business (Gilligan, 2009).With particular characteristics of ethical and handmade cosmetics, price of lUSH is just right. Figure 4: lush’s price lush |TOO CHEAP JUST RIGHT | TOO EXPENSIVE In the first three years, Lush is a not well – known in the UK market, therefore, at that time, Lush should focus on promotion strategy to improve brand value in customer’s image. It can be implementation by price strategy. In the first three years, Lush can attract new customers by reducing their profit to sell their product with cheaper price. For example, the price can be changed: Figure 5: lush’s accessories price change |Old price |New price | |Bath bombs |From ? 3. 15 to ? 2. 40 |From ? 3 to ? 2 | |Snow fairy |From ? 15 to ? 13 |From ? 13 to ? 5 | |Shower scrub |? 8 |? 7 | Price is one of the most flexible elements as it can be changed quickly. Using right price is important factor for Lush to achieve their objectives. 6. Strategic implementation and control Figure 5: Implementation time table strategy |Task |2013 |2014 | | |% |% |% | | | | | | |It is important that a company acts ethically |60 |59 |61 | | | | | | |I have refused to buy products from a company of |45 |45 |45 | |which I disapproved | | | | | | | | | |I like to buy products from companies who give |41 |38 |45 | |something back to society | | | | | | | | | |I only buy products from a company with whose |19 |18 |20 | |ethics I agree | | | | Taken from the TGI survey of around 25,000 adults SOURCE: BMRB GB TGI Q4 (July 2007-June 2008)/Mintel Appendix 4: Internet penetration at home/work/place of study or elsewhere, by demographic group and working status, Internet quarterly report, 2003-08 | | Appendix 7: [pic]

Monday, July 29, 2019

Summery Children Need to Play, Not Compete by Jessika Statsky Essay

Summery Children Need to Play, Not Compete by Jessika Statsky - Essay Example With that information Statsky aims at educating parents on the harm that the adult standards imposed on children games such as the selecting procedures and the high urge to win have especially on children aged between six and twelve years. Statsky explains that the discussed harmful effects on children emanate from both contact and noncontact sports. Statsky proposes that organized games should allow children to have fun while playing regardless of the results (Statsky 270-274). Therefore, this paper will evaluate the argument brought forth by Statsky to determine whether it is logical, appropriate and consistent. From my point of view, Statsky is partly right although stringent measures should be implemented to ensure that psychological, physical and emotional harmful effects brought forth by competitive games are completely curbed. Competition is part of life that every individual must consistently go through whether at school, in the chosen career path and the society at large. In actual sense, competition is more intense in the life of adults. Therefore, it is important to be subjected to competition at early stages of life so as to understand issues like quitters never win. This will help children to learn and live by competition principles thereby molding a strong and positive character. Conversely, organized games help children to acquire sportsmanship skills and character thereby fully setting their talents into practice. Moreover, they gain the required high self esteem, confidence and general positive perception about themselves. These are virtues that cannot be taught or instilled in them and they are highly important in their development. They enable children to learn strategies of attaining success and dealing with failure. For instance, when in preschool I used to be an active player of various types of games both contact and noncontact. The enthusiasm of the sports was derived from the fact that we were competing between each other. One even had the eagerness and desire to indulge in the new sports events. The notion was to be viewed as a hero before the eyes of colleagues thereby enabling us to have high self esteem and confidence. On the other hand, the competing factor gave the desire to have the required hype, fun, eagerness and pressure of having to perfect and excite at the same time. On the other side, the notion of competition brings in the necessity of training hard so as to win and achieve the prize that is always accompanied with a feeling of accomplishment and satisfaction. In addition, the spirit of competition used to bring team unity, closeness and team working. In fact, a better relationship between the team members was established. Therefore, from the above facts I oppose Statsky theory that children should not be subjected to competition. Instead, they should be allowed to play without the notion of winning or losing. This is because the competition aspect gives children a practical view of social life tha t adults go through; a life where they have no option than to struggle and win or put less effort and fail. However, parents and teachers should give them the option of whether to participate in a competition or not. Moreover, they should not be subjected to intense competition that will strike rivalry between them but instead the competition should be ecstatic. This will also enable the children to learn

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Six Steps Involved in Conducting a Job Analysis of a Nursing Position Assignment

Six Steps Involved in Conducting a Job Analysis of a Nursing Position - Assignment Example Further, the job analysis process helps in the determination of what a given job entails including the location, title, summary, working conditions, equipment, possible hazards and the material that the potential or existing employees will require to undertake the job  (Dessler, 2008). The first step in the job analysis process is to collect information concerning the job. Several methods can be used the collection of data about a given job. These methods include seeking the input of subject matter experts, reviewing classification standards and position descriptions, and going through occupational studies. Others include interviewing employees doing the job, letting employees fill questionnaires and observation. Nurses in emergency rooms specialize in the provision of critical medical care, as well as, specialized forms of treatments to patients who are severely ill or injured. They are involved in the provision of treatments to patients who suffer from life-threatening conditions. Of all the responsibilities emergency room nurses are involved in, undertaking the blood work is the most critical. This is because patients who visit this area lose blood at a high rate due to the kind of circumstances that they face before coming to the hospital. Further, the cleaning of lacerations is required, as well as, rapid assessment of patients. To begin with, emergency room nurses ought to be fast and efficient in their duties. This duty needs individuals that can work in blood-filled areas comfortably. Further, nurses in emergency rooms need to have been adequately trained with good academic abilities. Nurses need to be adequately trained so that they can have the relevant skills to clean up lacerations. This procedure requires near perfection, and this can be provided through adequate training. Further, nurses ought to have personalities that will allow them to work in areas with horrific sites. This personality is important because severely ill or injured individuals visit emergency rooms. Speedy, but efficient individuals are also required in the emergency rooms because of the pressure of the job.  Ã‚  

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Behaviors in Nursing Management Professional Term Paper

Behaviors in Nursing Management Professional - Term Paper Example The specific type of leadership needed in nursing management practice will be analyzed and its advantages presented. The form of leadership recommended in nursing is democratic leadership. After this, the importance of emotional and cultural intelligence will be discussed. Emotional intelligent managers are leaders with ability to identify and understand personal change emotions and develop strategies to manage them. Cultural intelligence is critical in nursing management practice as one strives to create an influence in an environment with different cultures values refer. After a discussion on the leadership styles, the specific qualities needed will be presented. Some qualities identified include integrity, courage, attitude and ability to take initiative. The other qualities identified are optimism, ability to strike balance in all areas of life and ability to manage stress. The next part will be a discussion on values, qualities and behaviors in relation to management process, co mmunication, team building, orientation of new staff and caring and ethics and empowerment of staff from a personal perspective. In the management process, values refer to the principles that the manager upholds and advocates. Qualities and behaviors refer to personal attributes that make a person an authentic leader in the organization. These values, behaviors and qualities in management process include being of integrity, promoting open communication, teamwork and managing organizational change.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Comparative Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Comparative Law - Essay Example Some scholars have furthered the realism and common sense approach to comparative law by arguing that laws can be effectively studied separately from the surrounding concerns and environment. Such formalized and deconceptualized approaches are evident from the fact that law comparists and comparative law scholars have hardly been engaging the other academic disciplines which in one way or the other influence the application and the understanding of law in different contexts (Balakrishnan, 2003). The aim of this treatise is to explore and examine how western approaches like realism and the common sense approach to various business values and ethics have influenced legal studies in comparative law. The paper will look into how attention has shifted in the preoccupation of comparative law and the written law codes to a social and culture based approach of understanding the legal matters. Pluralism is a phenomena whose impact is clearly evident in the field and application of competitive law. Antoine (2000) defines legal pluralism to be a theory that is used by social scientists whose basic idea is that several legal systems can coexist and intermingle in a single legal entity. The historical origin of this influence can be traced back to the middle ages, which faced the problems of the conflicts between the church laws and the sate laws. Anleu (2005) notes that a second historical evidence can be found in the imposition of various western laws in the indigenous laws of the countries that were ruled and influenced by western powers. In the more recent context, the phenomena has been seen as a result of globalization leading to the emergence of the global legal pluralism. The effect of legal pluralism in cooperative law has been witnessed in the legal families and the definition of legal systems. Authors and scholars who subscribed to legal pluralism define law in a very broad context. Their definition encompasses

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Education Annotated Bibliography Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Education - Annotated Bibliography Example The purpose is to help educators cope with the trend of increased scrutiny and testing in America’s public schools. Au, W. (2009). Social Studies, Social Justice: W(h)ither the Social Studies in High-Stakes Testing?Teacher Education Quarterly, 36(1), 43-58. High stakes testing is one of the most prevalent trends in education since the inception of the No Child Left Behind legislation was enacted in 2001. The author, researching from California State University, Fullerton presents findings on how this trend has affected social studies instruction in the classroom. The research reveals that social studies are losing class time in elementary school due to the NCLB mandate for proficiency in Math and Reading only. Other findings include changes in pedagogy in the social studies classroom that place emphasis on memorization of approved content and lessens the focus on critical thinking. This research is valuable in studying the impact of high stakes testing on the one subject that traditionally challenges social and societal assumptions. Baker, B. D., & McIntire, J. Evaluating State Funding for Gifted Education Programs. Roeper Review, 25(4), 173. The authors in this article offer a systematic analysis of Gifted Education spending at the state level. Five methods of funding are examined and explained.The authors then undertake an analysis of laudatory combinations of funding. This is an outstanding article for understanding how children of different ability levels have their needs met or ignored by state funding agencies. The analysis reveals that Virginia has the best system for funding Gifted Education. Baker, M., & Johnston, P. (2010). The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on High Stakes Testing Reexamined. Journal Of Instructional Psychology, 37(3), 193-199. Recent trends in education have seen an increase in high stakes testing as a result of NCLB legislation. All fifty states now utilize high stakes testing to meet NCLB requirements. The authors review the arguments for and against including Social Economic Status as a predictor of high stakes testing ability. The article is valuable for reviewing other studies and analyzing their meanings, but does not offer and new information of this recent educational trend. Boubsil, O., Carabajal, K., & Vidal, M. (2011). Implications of Globalization for Distance Education in the United States. American Journal Of Distance Education, 25(1), 5-20. Globalization and distance education are two recent trends in education. They seem to go hand-in-hand and should lead to the exporting of American style higher education around the world. The authors, writing from the University of Maryland University College and the University of New Mexico, argue that there are some barriers to exporting American higher education overseas. Barriers of language and the perception of American higher education institutions as de facto representatives of Americanism keep the growth in check in some regions. The authors po int out the globally, the demand is present so they predict continued growth despite the barriers. This is a useful and insightful research article dealing with a current recent trend in education. Elen, J., Clarebout, G., Leonard, R., & Lowyck, J. (2007). Student-centered and teacher- centered learning environments: what students think. Teaching In Higher

Internationl Economic Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Internationl Economic Law - Essay Example These trade advantages encompass benefits like larger import quotas or lower tariffs and import duties. A country designated with the MFN status must be treated on an equal platform as any other country that has been awarded the MFN status by the nation granting this special status. The MFN treatment principle is important in the context of the WTO whose members have pledged to award MFN statuses to each other. There are also certain exceptions like designating free trade sectors on a regional basis and providing additional benefits to the developing nations. Under the MFN system stipulated by the WTO, a member nation that grants the most-favoured status to a non-member state for a particular product is obliged to provide the same benefits to other members of the WTO2. Thus, the WTO ensures that trade benefits are provided to all members as well as non-members on an equitable basis. The notion of a Most-Favoured Nation has existed since medieval times where smaller versions of such a greements have existed since the 15th Century. However, the expansion of MFN status in international trade began to develop during the 18th century3. Before the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the MFN treatment could be found only among Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) which indeed aided in liberalizing international trade. MFNs also find mention in the ‘Fourteen points’ laid out by United States (US) President Woodrow Wilson in 1918 which called for the liberalization and equality of trade conditions among nations4. Features of the MFN principle The MFN treatment principle has numerous economic effects that are elaborated below. Advantages to International Trade The most important benefit of the MFN principle is that it allows nations to import goods from the most cost-effective and efficient producer without disrupting the notion of comparative advantage5. For instance, a country can import products from the best supplier from different countries ba sed on cost, quality and efficiency thereby improving its economic efficiency. However this efficiency is distorted if the importing nation imposes a higher tariff on imports from the efficient supplier, prompting the importer to prefer products of the next best supplier (from a different country) at lower tariffs. This results in a trade imbalance which reduces the economic benefit to the importing nation besides disrupting global economic efficiency6. The provision of the MFN status in this context to all the countries implies that the importing country will levy equal tariffs on all exporting nations resulting in the procurement of goods from the most efficient supplier. Thus, the primary objective of the MFN treatment principle is to improve the efficiency of international trade. Free Trade System As mentioned above, the equal treatment of nations based on the MFN treatment principle accords the most liberal business environment that allows WTO member states to cut costs in nego tiation and monitoring trade agreements. In simpler words, the MFN treatment has resulted in the reduction of costs associated with the maintenance and functioning of the free trade system7. Equal treatment for imports from all member countries also means that costs associated with ascertaining the originating port or country are also reduced thereby contributing

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Customer care trainee report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Customer care trainee report - Essay Example On a simpler note, it is about delighting the customers so that they will continue doing business with the company. Customer service is also defined to be a sequence or even a cycle of activities designed to enhance the level of customer satisfaction which is the feeling that a service or a product has met the customer's expectation. Finally, for a customer, it is "a function of how well an organization is able to constantly and consistently exceed the needs of the customers." ("Making A Point of Good Customer Service") Maximizing profit by providing excellent quality service is necessary and crucial. Companies need to know the way to succeed from the combination of customer loyalty, efficiency, and revenue. For most successful firms, they put customers at the core of organization's business system making it the most important aspect for profit generation. What makes companies be at the top of the game at the market place is the commitment to achieving and exceeding customer satisfaction and their continuous self assessment on how well their products and services fulfill the needs and expectations of the clientele. In order to sustain the competition, these companies have to show vision, diligence, and passion to benefit the customers. As a result of this belief, successful firms continuously deliver superior value to customers, at times, regardless of the products conditions. For instance, one's products may appear to be obsolete compared to others; however, top businesses are still able to sell t hese goods because of their ability to build the products' value to the customers on a consistent and continuous basis. Value is created by explaining the benefits of the products or services, addressing concerns, queries, or problems, and uncovering the needs of customers. A company that can present greater advantages to a customer is the frontrunner at the business world. Companies lose so much when they ignore the customers' needs, do not show any distinctive competence or customer empathy. Many products remain to be unsold and even with excessive marketing efforts; it still cannot influence customers to avail of either the products or services. It further irks the customers when they feel that companies are only after their money through alluring advertisements and publicities, and nothing more. The skill to be able to deliver the value to your clients is through excellent verbal and non-verbal communication skills and active listening. There are simple rules on how to maintain exceptional quality customer service starting with learning how to listen. It is said that when customers have complaints, it is usually because of something. Companies need to accept complaints positively; first, as a chance to give more details about a concern, second, as a means to learn something. Through this, companies are given the opportunity to better their goods and services at the proposition of the customers. Interrupting a complaining client is never a good way to resolve issues; on the contrary this is the easiest way to drive them away. Remember that one unsatisfied customer tells about twenty people and a business cannot afford to lose clients simply because they cannot patiently listen to customers concerns or that they take things

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

The reasons to be a social worker Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The reasons to be a social worker - Essay Example The researcher will begin with the statement that from his childhood he enjoy socializing, making new friends, meeting people and helping them in different ways. The author has been very compassionate about the financially poor people and always wanted to do something for them. It was his dream from his childhood to get into the stream of social work. At this point, the author cannot forget to acknowledge his mother who was basically responsible for developing these feelings for him. The researcher’s mother has been his inspiration and the author hardly knows anyone who is as compassionate and loving as her. She runs an old age home and also an orphanage for children. The researcher’s mother used to take him along with her during the weekends and also in his vacations and that is when the researcher developed the interest in social work. Recently, after the major Tsunami, there were many who lost their houses, parents who lost their children and children who lost their parents. The researcher was really moved by a five-year-old who happened to reach his mother's orphanage after the incidence. The author was really sorry for the child who lost all his family members and was all alone in this world. The researcher feels that his education and his future should be focused in this direction and take social work as his profession. The author believes that his educational background and abilities would be an excellent base for his future studies in social work

Monday, July 22, 2019

The planet Mars Essay Example for Free

The planet Mars Essay The atmosphere above the surface of Mars is about 100 times less dense than the atmosphere of Earth. The Martian atmosphere is dense enough to support a weather system that includes clouds and winds. According to experts, Mars roller coaster-like weather is more chaotic and unpredictable than scientists first thought. At times, the sky can appear pink and cloudless, filled with windblown dust raised from the rusty Martian surface. Tremendous dust storms sometimes rage over the entire planet. Most of the dust storms occur during the perihelion when Mars is closest to the sun. In addition, the dust storms continue to dominate the atmosphere and climate during the aphelion when Mars is furthest from the sun. Perihelion and aphelion occur every Mars year, which equals two Earth years. (Mars Atmosphere, 2002) Mars is much colder than Earth. The average temperature on Mars is about -80  °F (-60  °C).Temperatures at the Martian surface vary from as low as about -195  °F (-125  °C) near the poles during the winter to as much as 70  °F (20  °C) at midday near the equator. (Mars Science, 2000) These shifts in climate are caused by three factors: Mars thin atmosphere, its elliptical orbit around the sun, and strong climatic interactions between dust and water ice clouds in the atmosphere. Mars atmosphere is so thin that it weighs less than 1 percent of Earths atmosphere. Because Mars atmosphere is so paper-thin and there are no oceans to store up heat from the sun, the planets temperatures respond more quickly and intensely to surface changes and atmospheric heating by the sun. There are also much larger annual changes in sunlight falling on Mars than on Earth, because Mars distance from the sun varies by 20 percent in its orbit around the sun every two years. (Mars Science, 2000) Mars has many of the kinds of surface features that are common on Earth. These include plains, canyons, and volcanoes. Overall, craters occur throughout the surface of Mars, while they are rare on Earth. In addition, fine-grained reddish dust covers almost all the Martian surface. Many regions of Mars consist of flat, low-lying plains. Most of these areas are in the northern hemisphere. They may be so smooth because they were  built up from deposits of sediment. There is evidence that water once flowed across the Martian surface. The water would have tended to collect in the lowest spots on the planet and thus would have deposited sediments there. Near the equator of Mars, there are is a string of canyons known as Valles Marineris. Scientists believe that they were formed by the crust of the surface being stretched and ultimately split. Volcanoes appear throughout the planet. Many of these volcanoes resemble volcanoes that are in Hawaii. Their slopes rise gradually and they are referred to as shield volcanoes. They were formed from eruptions of lavas that can flow for long distances before solidifying. (The Surface of Mars, 2002) Martian craters are similar to craters on Earths moon. The craters have deep, bowl-shaped floors and raised rims. Some large craters have central peaks that form when the crater floor rebounds upward after an impact. Much of the surface of the southern hemisphere is extremely old, and it contains many craters. Other parts of the surface, especially in the northern hemisphere, are younger and thus have fewer craters. (Mars, 2002) References The Surface of Mars. (2002). Canyons and plains. [Online]. Available: Mars Atmosphere. (2002). [Online]. Available:

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Business overview of Fosters group limited

Business overview of Fosters group limited Fosters group limited is the Australian owned premium global beverage company. It delivers a total liquor portfolio of beers, wines and spirits to millions of its consumers globally. Fosters manufactures Australias most famous beer Foster Lager, it also manufactures Australias leading beer brands including Victoria Bitter (VB), Crown Lager, Carlton Draught and Cascade premium lager. It also produces world recognised wines such as Wolf Blass, Saltram, Beringer, Matua and Chateau St Jean. Wolf Blass was the number globally recognised wine product of Fosters. In addition to the above paragraph, Fosters Lager is the largest selling Australian beer brand in the world. About 100 million cases of fosters lager is consumed by the people worldwide per year. It is brewed in nine countries over 20 plants. It is the worlds third most widely distributed brand which is available in more than 150 countries. Foster lager is the international flagship brand for fosters group. The beer market in Australia is increasing day by day. The consumption of beer by adults, teenagers, and women has also increased. In this present scenario of globalization and economic downfall, people are changing their drinking habits along with their life style. They are concentrating much on the products which they think are worth spending. Fosters being market leader in production of beer in Australia, is adapting itself to the changed mindsets of the people. In order to fit the mind sets of people of Australia it has introduced a new product under the name of Fosters called Carlton Light, which is a low in carbs, low in alcohol volume and rich in its taste. Furthermore, this report deals with fosters groups market analysis in Australia. It explains how fosters has successfully launched its products by considering every aspect of launching a new product. It also deals with fosters research on Australias demographic, economic, socio cultures, political and technical environments, how it has segmented each of them in introducing its products. It emphasises on fosters marketing strategies and comes to a conclusion. At the end, this report will summarise some recommendations and implementation plan for further improvement of fosters market share in Australia. With this research we will find out that similarly if fosters introduces a new product, how it could be further improvised, depending up on the market analysis done on fosters marketing plan 2. Mission: Fosters Mission is to work together, respecting each other, our heritage, diversity, skills and knowledge to:   à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Build premium quality, first-choice brands   à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Deliver service excellence to customers and consumers   à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Generate superior returns for shareholders   à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Create an inspiring workplace   à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ be welcomed in the communities in which we operate  (Business Studies, 2009) Vision: Becoming the leading premium branded beverage company in the world by maintaining particular goals include: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ First choice brands for consumers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ First choice employer for our people à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ First choice investment for shareholders (Business Studies, 2009) 3. Internal Environment: 3.1. Products: Fosters group is a major organisation in beer and liquor industry overall Australia (Fosters Group A, 2009). It has many products in beer, wine, Cider and non alcoholic drinks which are under the flagship of fosters. Major Beer brands owned by Fosters Australia include: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Asahi Super Dry à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Brahama à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Carlton light à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Carlton Draught à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Carlton Midstrength à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Carlton Sterling à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Cascade Premium à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Cascade Premium Light à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Corona à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Crown Lager à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Fosters Lager à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Hoegaarden à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Kronenbourg 1664 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Leffe à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Melbourne Bitter à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Miller Genuine Draft à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Newcastle Brown Ale à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Pure Blond à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Stella Artois à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Victoria Bitter (Fosters Group B, 2009) 3.2 Financial Situation: Fosters group has a much of its production in it beer products but its major sales turnover is with its wine production. The wine products of fosters group has taken a bottom line of 75%. Rest 25% is with beer and spirits (Hoovers, 2009). However, according to the beer industry statistics, fosters group has a major share and its sales are also high. Fosters annual report shows that the company is in a very stable financial position and its good for the any further expansion (Appendix 1). The net profits are enough for implementing or introducing a new product in to the market. Fosters can also expand with this net profit in to new markets. 3.3 Channels: Fosters has chosen the best logistic services company which ensures the just in time delivery of its products to the stores. It also takes care of the warehousing, bottling, brewing and recycling of bottles. It has got the standardised infrastructure, simplified process and advanced transport management systems. Apart from this, it also takes care of the information and communication (ICT) technology utilised by fosters group in outsourcing their services globally (Ferret, 2008). 4 External environments: 4.1 Competitive environment and markets: The environment in which fosters group launching its products have many competitors but the acquisitions made by fosters group in Australia had made it the number one player of beer industry in Australia (Invest Smart, 2009). Apart from the other beer manufacturers, companys manufacturing non- alcoholic drinks is a major drawback for fosters. Because it acts as the substitute product for the alcoholic drinks and are low in price. 4.2 Demographic Environment: Australias diverse culture and lifestyle reflects its liberal democratic traditions and values (Australian Government A, 2009). Its geographic location which is closest to Asia pacific region has given an added advantage to Australia. People are diversifying to the new changes and the trends. Immigrants have helped Australia in enriching almost every aspect of Australian life, starting from business, cooking, arts, sports, science etc (Australian Government A, 2009). 4.3 Political and legal environment: Australia is ranked second in the political stability in the IMD world competitiveness yearbook 2009 (NSW government A, 2009). With this it is clear that the markets in Australia have no threats or inconveniences by the government changes and policies. Though the changes occur, they will be in favour of the organisations because Australia has the decentralised labour market. 4.4 Economic Environment: Australia has a strong and flexible economy. It has capitalized the countries proximities for the emerging new Asian markets on its longstanding trade links to Japan and the United States. In 2007 Australia registered its 17th consecutive year of economic expansion with GDP growth averaging 3.5% per year (NSW government B, 2009). Even during the economic downfall, Australia has remained stable and maintained its position. 4.5 Socio-cultural environment: The Australia is a multilingual country with lot if international immigrants entering in to this country every year. It has broad varieties of culture that adapts any change easily (Australian Government A, 2009). According to the statistics of Australian bureau of statistics, its clear that population of Australia is increased by 2.1% during the 12 months ended at 30 June 2009 (Appendix 2). Along with the population increase the alcohol consumption rate of the people has also increased mostly amongst teenagers aged between 17 -19 years. 4.6 Technological Environment: With the globalization, markets are getting much more advanced in their products. Organisations are producing products at a rapid rate in bulk due to automation of their industries. Australian government is also spending lot of money in developing its countries infrastructure and technology which helps the foreign investors in putting their investments. Research and development has advanced along with the advancement in technology, helping in development of new discoveries (Australian Government B, 2009). Australian market is always ready in adapting new technological changes, discoveries and developments. 5. SWOT Analysis: Strengths: Globally recognised brand Largest selling beer brand in the world available in more than 150 countries Wide range of beer products Strong corporate representation in the market place ( it also produces premium wines such as wolf Blass, Saltram, Beringer, Matua and chateau St jean) Seen as a good corporate citizen with the promotions of the events such as formula one, AFL and Rugby Australian owned company (Business Studies, 2009) Weaknesses: Communities changing attitudes towards alcohol consumption Falling per head beer in Australia Communities attitude towards plastic packaging People becoming more health conscious Opportunities: Further expansion in to domestic and global markets Acquiring more number of breweries and wineries Acquisition of more number of hotels and restaurants by introducing fosters products Gaining public support by taking initiatives on environmental friendly packaging and recycling programs Threats: Strong competition from other beer producers in the market Public changing their tastes and perceptions in demanding imported beers 6. Marketing Objectives: The marketing objectives of fosters group includes: To increase market share Increase product range Expand geographically Expand through export Maximise customer service (Business Studies , 2009) To increase market share: Fosters is trying to expand itself to increase its market share over the years. After the acquisition of New South Wales brewer Tooth and Co, fosters gained the advantage of becoming market leader. By 2001, it has acquired more than five brewing companies across Australia becoming the number one producer of beer by volume in Australia. Increase product range: By acquiring small and big breweries, fosters with its products along with the acquired products has increased its product range. These products are widely distributed throughout Australia with fosters as its flag ship Expand geographically and Expand through export: The prime method of export is by acquiring breweries internationally, this in turn leads to its geographical expansion. With this geographical expansion it can cover a wider market and also increase its market share globally 7.0 Marketing Strategies: 7.1 Target Markets: Fosters groups main target are the people who consume alcohol including beer, wine, spirits, cider and other pre-mixed drinks. When the Carlton light was introduced, everything has changed. This product has concentrated much more on the segments where people are more likely to prefer low crabs beer and people who are health conscious. This segment includes youngsters, corporate employees and women. Continuing, from the outline of the statistics obtained from Australian Bureau of statistics, we can conclude that the people are spending more in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks (Appendix). So, by studying the statistics, Fosters has introduced Carlton light in to the markets which eventually boosted its sales. Along with this, Carlton light has grabbed the attention of the people who are in love with Fosters other products. 7.2 Product: Here Carlton light was a new product which was introduced in to the Australian markets. So, this report focuses on its potential service. As mentioned by Stuart, et al, (1995), that a potential service is considered as the level at which the organisations tries to delight their customers by finding out better ways. Similarly, Fosters has introduced Carlton light in order to delight its existing and new customers by providing them with low crabs, ultra light beer. Furthermore, in addition to the introduction of its new products, Fosters has always concentrated on branding them. Since the core product of Fosters is beer, the company wants its core product to be different from its competitors. So, in order to differentiate, Fosters has mainly targeted on its branding by creating a brand image. This was done by shaping the bottle to the international recognizable standards with a long neck bottle, appealing labels, high contrast colours etc. This has differentiated fosters products from other players in the market. Various other products under Fosters such as Victoria Bitter, foster lager, Crown lager and cascade premium draught have a special recognition for themselves in Australia (Fosters C, 2009). This already established recognition has given the Carlton light with the same recognition, which eventually improved the brand image of Fosters. 7.3 Pricing: According to Kerin, (2008), pricing is considered as a crucial of the marketing mix because it determines the revenue that the companys products will earn (Kerin, 2008). In determining a products pricing, pricing strategy matrix should be considered by every organisation (Kotler, et al, 2009). From the above table, the price skimming strategy was used by Fosters in pricing their products. Fosters doesnt want to penetrate in to the markets by keeping their prices low because, its existing products are already higher in costs compared to other brands in the market (Invest Smart, 2009). Foster has gained first mover advantage by introducing Carlton light with a premium price. It has sustained its growth by maintaining steady sales over a period of time. Carlton light has gained the market share by hitting the markets at the right time. During this period, the demographic segments of Australia have become more health conscious, this statistics have helped Fosters in launching Carlton Light (Ibs World, 2009). Rajendhra, (2006), mentions that there is a link between the price and the quality of the product. He also mentions that the pricing of a product should be done along simultaneously by improving the quality of product. So, fosters has introduced Carlton Light in to the markets, which is rich in quality and which has low carbs. Fosters research and development takes care in assuring the quality of its products (Fosters, 2009). 7.4 Promotion Strategies: The role of promotions in the marketing mix is to bring about mutually satisfying exchange with the target markets by informing, educating and persuading them of benefits of the product (Charles, et al, 2008). Here the benefits of Carlton light are the low calories beer which helps the customers in washing their worries on becoming fat or affecting their diet. This beer can be enjoyed by everyone because it has low alcohol; its just a higher end substitute of the soft drinks and other non alcoholic drinks in the market. Continuation, Apart from the regular promotions fosters uses in promoting its products; it has to educate people about the benefits of the beer. This can be done by: Implementing responsible drinking programs: which explains on how much consumption should be made and how it benefits Introducing health conscious kiosks at shopping malls Sponsoring The biggest looser program that is featured in Australian Television channel. Apart from these promotions, it follows its basic approaches like: Advertising through television, magazines and news papers Sponsoring different sporting activities Worldwide sponsorship and association with formula one racing which it already does with foster brands Sponsoring AFL, rugby league etc which it already does with foster brands 7.5 Distribution Strategy: Place or distribution strategy are mainly concerned in making the product available to its customers when and where they wanted (Charles, et al, 2008). Since alcohol is a drink that has some regulations from the government, it should follow specific steps in selling them to its customers. Beer is not available everywhere, it has its own places such as Bottle shops, liquor stores, super markets, pubs, restaurants, hotels etc. Similarly, though Carlton light is a low alcohol beer, it has to be sold along with other liquor products. Foster group has a wide distribution of its products across Australia and it makes sure that Carlton light also gets equal importance along with its other beers. 8. Recommendations: Spending more in research and development in improving the fineness of beer. Introducing new products as substitutes to the existing products Entering in to broader market by using international strategy for market development Concentrating more on responsible drinking programs Increasing the promotion standards e.g. sponsoring student activity programs in universities Improving the quality of the acquired products by implementing the processes foster follow in its own organisation. Acquiring more number of local and international breweries 9. Implementation Plan: Carefully thinking about the suggested recommendations and the market analysis done by this report on fosters group, this report will suggest an implementation plan for these things. Considering the marketing objectives of Fosters group we can draw that, through acquisition on other breweries, fosters has gained a competitive advantage in the market. According to Ansoffs, product/market matrix, fosters should use the international strategy in order to develop its market. Here in market development, it states that by introducing an existing product in to the new market, fosters group can gain the first mover advantage and also can expose its brands to new audience globally (Kotler P, et al, 2009). This will be done by acquisition of local breweries in the new market or introducing the new product with a premium price. This will also expands fosters product range. When it enters in to new markets, it has to do a lot of research in developing fine quality of beer so that everyone likes it at the first shot. By targeting only the health conscious audience, it has to introduce ultra light beer, with low carbs, less alcohol content than Carlton Light. Similar strategies should be followed in implementing this new product. Along with constantly monitoring and controlling this marketing plan, areas like sales and market and profitability by product and territory should also be monitored. It also should conduct regular updates on further improving its each product like wines, spirits, ciders because those particular products will become a massive hit in particular areas. References: ABS, (2009), Australian Bureau Of Statistics-Australian Demographic Statistics, Jun 2009,[emailprotected]/mf/3101.0 (Accessed on 08-03-2010) Australian Government A, (2009), About Australia-People, culture and Life Style, (Accessed on 8-03-2010) Australian Government B, (2009), About Australia-Innovations, (Accessed on 8-03-2010) Business Studies, (2009), Marketing At Fosters, (Accessed on 5-03-10) Charles W. L., Hair F.J. Jr, McDaniec C., (2008), Essentials of Marketing, 6th Ed, Cengage Learning Ferret, (2009), Fosters Group selects RedPrairie for logistics network transformation project, (Accessed on 06-03-2010) Fosters A, (2009), About Us, (Accessed on 7-03-2010) Fosters B, (2009), our brands, (Accessed on 7-03-2010) Fosters C, (2009), Beer, (Accessed on 7-3-10) Hoov ers, (2009), Fosters Group Limited, (Accessed on 07-03-2010) Invest Smart, (2009), Fosters Group Limited, (Accessed on 10-03-10) Kotler. P, et al, 2009, Principles of marketing 4th ed, Australia, Pearson education Australia. NSW Government A, (2009), Political Stability, (Accessed on 07-03-2010) NSW Government B, (2009), State Economies, (Accessed on 7-03-2010) Rajendhra Nargundkar, (2006), Services Marketing 2E, 2nd Ed, Tata McGraw-Hill, NY. Appendix 1: (Source: Fosters Group Limited Income Statement All amounts in millions of US Dollars except per share amounts. Jun 09 Jun 08 Jun 07 Revenue 3,778.5 4,411.7 4,185.1 Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit 3,778.5 4,411.7 4,185.1 Gross Profit Margin SGA Expense Depreciation Amortization Operating Income 919.6 1,095.8 994.6 Operating Margin 24.3% 24.8% 23.8% Nonoperating Income Nonoperating Expenses Income Before Taxes 801.7 956.9 812.6 Income Taxes 214.5 268.3 221.4 Net Income After Taxes 587.2 688.6 591.2 Continuing Operations 356.2 106.6 823.1 Discontinued Operations 0.0 6.2 0.0 Total Operations 356.2 112.9 823.1 Total Net Income 356.2 112.9 823.1 Net Profit Margin 9.4% 2.6% 19.7% Diluted EPS from Total Net Income 0.18 0.06 0.41 Dividends per Share 0.21 0.24 0.19  © 2009 Morningstar, Inc. Financial Data provided by   Data Definitions Fosters Group Limited Balance Sheet All amounts in millions of US Dollars except per share amounts. Assets Jun 09 Jun 08 Jun 07 Current Assets Cash 107.0 154.5 244.0 Net Receivables 757.1 1,019.2 984.9 Inventories 926.1 970.9 880.8 Other Current Assets 114.6 75.3 129.9 Total Current Assets 1,904.8 2,219.9 2,239.5 Net Fixed Assets 1,559.8 1,959.5 1,919.3 Other Noncurrent Assets 3,272.4 3,747.7 3,956.3 Total Assets 6,737.0 7,927.1 8,115.2 Liabilities and Shareholders Equity Jun 09 Jun 08 Jun 07 Current Liabilities Accounts Payable Short-Term Debt 297.8 43.8 242.6 Other Current Liabilities 795.5 954.0 1,048.6 Total Current Liabilities 1,093.3 997.8 1,291.2 Long-Term Debt Other Noncurrent Liabilities 2,620.8 3,230.7 2,892.2 Total Liabilities 3,714.1 4,228.5 4,183.4 Shareholders Equity Preferred Stock Equity 0.0 0.0 0.0 Common Stock Equity 3,009.0 3,670.6 3,908.3 Total Equity 3,009.0 3,670.6 3,908.3 Shares Outstanding (thou.) 1,927,753.0 1,927,753.0 1,927,753.0  © 2009 Morningstar, Inc. Financial Data provided by   Data Definitions Fosters Group Limited Cash Flow Statement All amounts in millions of US Dollars except per share amounts. Jun 09 Jun 08 Jun 07 Net Operating Cash Flow 712 643 634 Net Investing Cash Flow (169.6) (47.4) 486.6 Net Financing Cash Flow (568.3) (705.2) (1,247.4) Net Change in Cash (26.0) (109.1) (126.7) Depreciation Amortization Capital Expenditures (149.9) (135.8) (165.6) Cash Dividends Paid (383.1) (578.8) (528.9) Appendix 2, (Source:[emailprotected]/mf/3101.0) JUNE KEY FIGURES Population at end Jun qtr 2009 Change over previous year Change over previous year PRELIMINARY DATA 000 000 % New South Wales 7 099.7 115.5 1.7 Victoria 5 427.7 113.9 2.1 Queensland 4 406.8 112.9 2.6 South Australia 1 622.7 19.4 1.2 Western Australia 2 236.9 65.7 3.0 Tasmania 502.6 5.1 1.0 Northern Territory 224.8 5.0 2.3 Australian Capital Territory 351.2 5.6 1.6 Australia(a) 21 874.9 443.1 2.1 (a) Includes Other Territories comprising Jervis Bay Territory, Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Population growth Population Growth Rate, Year ended current quarter JUNE KEY POINTS ESTIMATED RESIDENT POPULATION The preliminary estimated resident population (ERP) of Australia at 30 June 2009 was 21,875,000 persons. This was an increase of 443,100 persons (2.1%) since 30 June 2008 and 95,800 persons since 31 March 2009. Preliminary natural increase recorded for the year ended 30 June 2009 (157,800) was 8.4% (or 12,200 persons) higher than the natural increase recorded for the year ended 30 June 2008 (145,600). Preliminary net overseas migration for the year ended 30 June 2009 was 285,300 persons. POPULATION GROWTH RATES Australias population grew by 2.1% during the 12 months ended 30 June 2009. Natural increase and net overseas migration contributed 36% and 64% respectively to this total population growth. All states and territories experienced positive population growth over the 12 months ended 30 June 2009. Western Australia recorded the largest percentage gain (3.0%) and Tasmania the smallest (1.0%).

Swot Analysis Of Company Practices: PayPal

Swot Analysis Of Company Practices: PayPal The online payment systems provider that we have chosen is PayPal. PayPal is an e-commerce business that allows payments and money transfer to be made through the Internet. PayPal serves as an electronic alternative to traditional paper methods such as cheque and money orders. The service allows members to send money without sharing financial information, with the flexibility to pay using their account balances, bank accounts, credit cards or promotional financing. PayPal is an example of a payment intermediary service that facilitates worldwide e-commerce. PayPal is an eBay subsidiary company and is made up of three leading online payment services: the PayPal global payment service, the Payflow Gateway and Bill Me Later. The companys open payment platform, PayPal X, that allows developers to build innovative payment applications on multiple platforms and devices. PayPal performs payment processing for online vendors, auction sites, and other commercial users, for which it charges a fee. It charges transaction fee for receiving money. The fees charged depend on the currency used, the payment option used, the country of the sender, the country of the recipient, the amount sent and the recipients account type. In addition, PayPal is also the preferred way to send secure payments on eBay. With PayPal, customers who have an online account can makes it easy to send money from a variety of sources to a variety of recipients without sharing his or her financial information. Besides that, the recipient never sees their credit card number or their banking information. So, as a buyer, customers can pay for their item online through PayPal. They have the choice of funding their payment with their debit card, credit card, bank account or PayPal balance. Sellers are notified by email of their PayPal payment immediately, and can confidently post the goods to them right away. As a seller, he or she can withdraw those funds to their bank account or use them to send a payment to someone else. If for any reason a refund is required, a seller can quickly and easily send a refund to the buyer directly into their PayPal account. PayPal is the result of a March 2000 merger between Confinity and Confinity was founded in December 1998 by Max Levchin, Peter Thiel, and Luke Nosek, and Ken Howery, initially as a Palm Pilot payments and cryptography company. Both Confinity and launched their websites in late 1999. was founded by Elon Musk in March 1999, initially as an Internet financial services company. Both companies were located on University Avenue in Palo Alto. Confinitys website was initially focused on reconciling beamed payments from Palm Pilots with email payments as a feature and X.coms website primarily featured financial services with email payments as a feature. In October 2002, PayPal was acquired by eBay. PayPal had previously been the payment method of choice by more than fifty percent of eBay users, and the service competed with eBays subsidiary Billpoint, eBay has since phased out its Billpoint service in favor of retaining the PayPal brand. Currently, PayPal operates in 190 markets, and it manages over 223 million accounts, more than 73 million of them active. PayPal allows customers to send, receive, and hold funds in 19 currencies worldwide. These currencies are the Australian dollar, Brazilian real, Canadian dollar, Euro, pound sterling, Japanese yen, and others. PayPal operates locally 13 countries, residents in 194 markets can use PayPal in their local markets to send money online. SWOT Analysis of company practices Strengths The strengths of a business are positive elements, something they do well and are under their control. The following we will see the main strengths of the PayPal. The first strength we will talk about is the business alliance of PayPal. Because of social website that has users from all over the world- Facebook has brings the PayPal to manage its payment make PayPal increase more revenue. Facebook find out that 70 percent of its 400 million users live outside the United States, so it can be hard for them to transfer money to the company online. While PayPal has more than 81 million active accounts, it can help Facebook to collect money easily. Having alliances with other strong and popular IT businesses is a major plus point for PayPal as it helps bring in new customers and make business more effective. PayPal appear as the only online global payment system in the world. It is a key to success for PayPal to work hard for it boosts reputation, profit and market share. PayPal has an impressive growth from year to year. It has around 70 million active users in 2008 and it is 23% more than 2007. PayPal operates in 190 markets, 17 local languages, and transacts in 19 currencies and it operates with 27 global financial networks and 15,000 local banks around the world. No other companies have this advanced system except the market leader- PayPal. It has a high percentage of the market share, meaning it is ahead of many competitors. Competitive pricing is a vital element of PayPals overall success. With the cost effective payment system online such as the Pay as you go system that allow customers pay only if they are making money online unless they are using more advanced options. Such pricing keep PayPal above its rivals. PayPal need you just simply pay a percentage of the payments received, typically between 1.4 and 3.4% plus a fixed amount of 20p per transaction. And it is totally free to set-up a PayPal account for your business with no hidden start-up costs or yearly subscription fees. It is often the case that a potential customer may not heard of your business, but they certainly have seen or heard of PayPal before. PayPal logo can be easily seen by the users of internet because it appears in almost every auction website and even in many website that provide services as the payment method. They are therefore more likely to consider purchasing from your website as they some more do not have to give their financial details if use PayPal. A strong brand is an essential strength of PayPal as it is recognized and respected. Now the system has 100 million satisfied users worldwide and more websites use PayPal than any other payment gateway. The other strength of PayPal is convenience it brings to the public. PayPal website and payment service is user friendly. It is easy and simple to use, even for those who have no or little experience in selling or buying online. PayPal main focus is on the ease of use for both receivers and senders of cash. It also uses its securing system to help protects consumers personal information, and provides payments to merchants without ever providing your personal financial information. Merchants will not get the credit card information of the consumers, it decreasing the chance of breaching personal information. The ability to accept online payments typically only afforded to larger businesses with traditional credit card services but with the appeal of PayPal, it offers merchants, specifically smaller businesses can afford online payments. In essence, PayPal provide a per-to-peer payment channel by acts as a mediator between consumers and merchants. Weakness The first weakness of PayPal is the weak system of it. Currently, PayPal is not using a database-driven ordering system. For most of the online merchants with 25 to 500,000 products for sale online set up a spreadsheet or database that contains their product information by using specialized software. They make changes to the database on a desktop computer, such as price increases, inventory on hand, adding or deleting a product, altering color choices, initiating special sales, etc. These changes then will replace the older product database and show up the new product database on the website. But the PayPal system stores the order buttons of customers in an online database of sorts, but customers can only access it by using the web interface. It works quite smooth if customers only making one or two changes. But if customers have a lot of products, they forced to make the changes constantly. It will cause customers waste too much time while the time is most conscious for business. The other weakness is the bad communication between PayPal and its customer. The complaining system and the customer service at the PayPal website are too ineffective. Many complaints from time to time claim that PayPal has shut down a customers account arbitrarily and wont listen to any reason. But its not hard to know that PayPal works very hard to keep its system secure and fraud-free. When it finds out customers doing things that skid along the edge of its policies, it may shut them down arbitrarily. As PayPal is act in such way for good reasons, it should try to communicate with customers and let them know more about their action like send e-mail or phone call them so the misunderstand can be decrease. The limited flexibility of the PayPal system is due to its inflexible Hosted Ordering Interface. It provides an inflexible ordering interface that can be confusing to shoppers. PayPal allow customers to customize the interface a bit by adding their logo, selecting background colors, and border styles but customers ability to customize the order page is only in cosmetic ways. PayPal does not have an ordering system with open code that a programmer can manipulate to suit customers particular e-commerce needs. Some of the strongest conversion rate gains can be made by testing and streamlining an order interface in this way. Thats the reason why the PayPals order interface is clunky and can be confusing. Opportunities Acquisition is one of the opportunities for PayPal as it can bring more customers to PayPal especially with company that also run IT business. eBay announce that it will phase out its own competing service to PayPal that is eBay Payments by Billpoint and has acquire online payments company PayPal in a deal valued at $1.5 billion. This is very beneficial to PayPal as bulk of its business comes from eBay auctions. This event sure will result in improving PayPals profit, market share and reputation. Innovation of new technology can be defined as an opportunity to the PayPal. PayPal has reached an agreement with USAA Federal Savings Bank (USAA Bank) that will allow it to start developing a person to person payment solution for USAA members. This payment solution is something that USAA Bank plans to deliver in 2011. In future, USAAs members will be able to pay almost anyone with an e-mail address or mobile phone number, in real-time, and directly from their mobile phone. By keep working hard to provide more innovative product to the public, PayPal can gain more and more potential customer. Another example we can see is by releasing new APIs (Application Programming Interfaces), PayPal is challenging the developer community to change the way we pay through innovation and new technologies. As the only open global payment platform, PayPal is unlocking the door to an unparalleled business proposition to developers that is create new, innovative ways to pay and get paid. And, the globa l payments market represents a $30 trillion opportunity according to a recent McKinsey report. Furthermore, the efforts of PayPal on product and services expansion have upgraded its own mainframe system to every corner of the world. To show its efforts in product and services expansion, PayPal has expanded its micropayments pricing, available to any member with a PayPal Business or Premier account. Micropayments fees for US dollar transactions are 5% + 5 cents per transaction. When compared to PayPals standard fees (2.9% + 30 cents), the micropayments rate can save money for merchants whose average selling price is below $12. Although micropayments is not new to PayPal, but this micropayments pricing was previously available only to account holders in select countries. With this expansion, PayPal are making it available to any PayPal Business or Premier account holder worldwide using any of PayPals 19 supported currencies. In addition, this micropayments pricing can be used with any of PayPals payment products including Website Payments Standard, Website Payments Pro and for e Bay sellers. The massive power of the Web can be recognized in its global effect on commerce. A global commerce for business exchange known as PayPal has been required because this medium is so strong worldwide. PayPal is recognized as an actual commerce with value around the world, and it makes someone in Europe can purchase a product from the United States while the neither party without PayPal has to struggle with the transfer of money options or exchange rates. The creation of a global commerce exchange system at a local consumer level makes this result happen. Threats The actions of a competitor could be a major threat against PayPal, for instance, if they bring in new technology or increase their workforce to meet demand. PayPal has several competitors such as eMoney Mail, Ecount and payMe. eMoney Mail provide delivers payments faster than the competition and its additional security ensures money doesnt end up in the wrong hands. Ecount lets customers specify the day they want money to arrive and provides payees with an online account to spend money on the Web, and it provide 24/7 toll-free customer support too. payMe deposits money in credit card and checking the accounts and it do not limit to the amount you can send overall. Both of the competitors try to give their best services, if PayPal do not work hard and efficient enough, it will lose its market share and reputation. Price wars between competitors that occur due to competitor keep invent new technology could damage profits for PayPal. As in year2006, Google plans to use Checkout, a service released in June that lets users buy items from multiple stores using a single account. Its purpose is to generate commissions and encourage more merchants to buy advertisements. At that time, the PayPal payment unit was EBays fastest-growing business in the third quarter. PayPals revenue climbed 41% to $350 million, outpacing a gain of 22% in auction revenue to $1.02 billion. Google Checkout wants to attract customers and therefore make charges a 2% commission and a 20-cent fee per purchase. While PayPal, which EBay acquired in 2002, charges a 30-cent rate, plus transaction fees of 1.9% to 2.9%, depending on the total value of payments processed each month. But in EBays promotion announced, customers receive as much as $20 in cash-back rebates from PayPal when they make online purchases on and certain merchant websites in North America. As we all can see, price wars will cut off the profit of the company. PayPal do not invest in the advertising on the internet causes the brand image of PayPal is not very well. So it also has a need to strengthen its brand through the Web. In the image of the public, PayPals brand is closely associated with smaller merchants, low-cost auctions, and P2P money transfer. As a result, some larger firms might not want their brands associated with PayPal brand image. They may think that by this way public could devalue a corporations stronger brand. The fact remains that consumers associate its brand with less expensive, cheaper items even though PayPal is an enormous corporation. In order to solve this problem, PayPal should look to network with larger companies through the possible branding of a service associated with corporations. Furthermore, PayPal has the ability to introduce and market a new brand, such as CorpXchange or CorpCash by promoting the same services but without the low-cost auctions associated with PayPal. Porters Five forces of company practices The threat of the entry of new competitors Nowadays, barriers to entry of e-commerce business is low because of anything that internet technology eliminates or makes easier to do reduces the barriers to entry such as in the need for a sales force, access to channels and physical assets. Besides that, internet applications are difficult to keep proprietary from new entrants. This lead to a flood of new entrants has come into many industries, and one of the industries is e-commerce business. There are many new companies which provide similar services as PayPal such as Billpoint, Citibanks c2it, whose service was closed in late 2003, Yahoo!s PayDirect, whose service was closed in late 2004, and BidPay, which was shut down in 2006. However, there are still some new and former competitors such as Google Checkout, Wirecard, Moneybookers, The InstantPay (launching Jan 2011),, CCNow and Kagi still remain in business. But this does not affects PayPals revenue as it has impressive growth throughout many years. In 2008, it s revenue is US$ 60 billion, which increased 27% compared to the previous year, and US$ 71 billion in 2009, an increase of 19% over the previous year. During the early year of PayPal, there are lesser competitors, which means PayPal has a bigger market shares and this lead to more customers are using PayPal for their services. As time goes on, internet technology has grown more advance and this makes internet applications are very easy and attract more new entrants. New entrants join the market make the market shares of PayPal is getting smaller. This is because customers have more choices when choosing a right online payment service provider to process their payment. Besides that, some of the competitors got better offer than PayPal, such as cheaper charges and safer transaction process. This leads to the decrease of customers loyalty to PayPal and becoming a threat to the company. Google Checkout is one of the new entrant and main competitors with PayPal. It is an online payment processing service provided by Google aimed at simplifying the process of paying for online purchases on 28 June 2006. Users store their credit or debit card and shipping information in their Google Account, so that they can purchase anything at participating stores at the click of a button. It also offers fraud protection, as well a unified page for tracking purchases and their status. It also provide service with lower cost compared to PayPal. Unlike who only provide fraud protection for sales of more than $50, Google Checkout provide 100% fraud protection and 100% refund, but users must report it within 60 days. All these has make Google Checkout to become a threat to PayPal. Another new entrant is Wirecard AG, a global financial services and technology company founded in 1999. In November 2006, Wirecard has launched an internet payment service called Wirecard. By registering online, consumer can opens an account at Wirecard Bank which he can load by cash, cards, direct debit, wire transfer or various local payment schemes. The service includes a free virtual prepaid MasterCard for consumers that can be used to pay at millions of MasterCard locations worldwide. Apart from standard MasterCard products, the Wirecard system also let users to send each other money in real-time. There is also optional physical MasterCard enables users to pay at 24.7 million MasterCard brickmortar acceptance points and to withdraw cash at nearly 1 million ATMs worldwide. People may consider to use Wirecard because it is operated by a true bank. Unlike PayPal, Wirecard cannot simply freeze or limit customers accounts without a reasonable explanations. It may get suit by customer s. Therefore, PayPal should start to consider not to be just protecting its own interest, but protect its customers interest as well so it would not lose its customers. PayPal has some solutions to overcome the threat of losing customers loyalty to the company. One of the solution is PayPal has acquired a company named Fraud Sciences, which is expert in online risk tools to enhance eBay and PayPals proprietary fraud management systems and accelerate the development of improved fraud detection tools. On the other hand. eBay, as the parent company to PayPal, has added Google Checkout to its banned payment methods list to prevent eBay users from using Google Checkout. With this way, PayPals competitors will become lesser, thus the market share of the company will become bigger and also secure the customers loyalty to PayPal. The intensity of competitive rivalry As internet technology become more advance from time to time, it reduces the differences among competitors as offerings are difficult to keep proprietary. Therefore, PayPal used the alliance strategy to get larger percentage of market shares than other competitors. For example, on 18 Feb 2010, Facebook announced a partnership with PayPal in which users can now pay for their Facebook Credits by using the payment provider. Facebook had test other payment solution before making decision to have a partnership with PayPal, however the ability to pay for the virtual transactions through PayPal is great considering they have more than 81 million accounts. this prove that PayPal is good enough to handle massive amount of online transactions. Thus the company is intensifying pressures to other rivals as this partnership give many benefits to PayPal its market shares are getting bigger. PayPal also intensify pressure on its mobile payment service rivals too. Obopay is the company founded in 2005 that provide mobile payment service in United States. It is a service that allows the transfer of money between mobile phones. After a customer creates an Obopay account, they can add money from a credit card, debit card, or a bank transfer. This make people a lot easier because most of the people will carry a hand phone with them. However, PayPal announced its inclusion in Sprint Nextels MyMoneyManager suite of mobile financial services in 2008. It is the innovation strategy that it used to attract new customers and provide a wider range of services to its former customers too. PayPal and partner mFoundry are on deck to provide banking services for Sprint, making it the first major operator in United States to have mobile money transfers between subscribers. Its fee is also cheaper than Obopay too. By doing this, PayPal has intensified pressure to Obopay and also show its i ntensity of competitive rivalry is very strong. Besides that, internet advance technology also leads to migrates competition to price among competitors. Although PayPal charges and fees for online payment processing are slightly higher than the other competitors, it can still have a lot of loyal customers and new customers using its services. The reason is currently, PayPal operates in 190 markets, and it manages over 223 million accounts, and more than 73 million of the accounts are active. PayPal also allows customers to send, receive, and hold funds in 19 currencies worldwide and it operates with 27 global financial networks and 15,000 local banks around the world. It also operates in 13 countries. The wide range of services provided by PayPal is a better choice than its competitors as none of them can provide such services. Customers with a PayPal accounts can also make payment for many other services and products which make things a lot easier. Customers do not have to open another account for just that particular payment. The threat of substitute products or services This analysis will identify the likelihood that customers to your industry will switch to purchasing an alternative product or use an alternative services from outside your industry. With the advance of internet technology, the proliferation of internet approaches creates new substitutions threat in many industries. There are many alternative apart from online payment providers in the e-commerce market such as, credit card, debit card, checks, money order and e-banking. For local transactions, consumers will use these kinds of traditional methods rather than PayPal. If a person buy a product with credit card, all he need to pay is the price of the product and interest charged by bank. However, if he pay the bank early, he would not be charged with any interest and this method will be cheaper than using PayPal. If a person does not has a credit card, they can use online banking to make their payment as all they need is just a saving account in the particular bank. Besides that, having a saving account at a bank are better than having a PayPal account as there are many complaint from its customers that PayPal freeze its users account arbitrarily and wont listen to any reason. PayPal can freeze its users account easily without giving prior notice because it is not supervise by the bank regulation. Therefore, this will lead to a higher threat to PayPal for its users to change to use other substitute services. There are also many complaint from its users that PayPal security against fraud is not good. Users are easy to get scam or the confidential data are easy to be stolen. To avoid this situation happens, buyers can use money order to make payment as well. money order As for merchants, their substitute service apart from PayPal is merchant account. Merchant account is a type of bank account that allow businesses to accept payments by debit or credit cards. A merchant account also serves as an agreement between a retailer, a merchant bank and payment processor for the settlement of credit card and/or debit card transactions. PayPal charges fees by per transaction, while merchant account is charging fees monthly and fix. Therefore, PayPal usually used by small business merchant as payment processor as the cost is cheaper. While for merchant that have massive transaction, most of them use merchant account as their payment processor because it will be cheaper than using PayPal. The bargaining power of buyers The bargaining power of customers is the ability of customers to put the firm under pressure, which also affects the customers sensitivity to price changes. The advanced internet technology has reduced switching costs of buyers and this makes the buyer would not simply switch to use other companies services. Although the fees charges to PayPal users are more expensive than its competitors, it still does not lower down the fees. This is because of PayPal provides to its users better services than its rivals, such as providing customers to hold up to 19 currencies of different countries so they can make their payment easily. It is the only company that can allows users hold that much currencies and requires high fixed costs to maintain this type of services. Customers that wishes to bargain for lower fees are maybe just a small portion among all the PayPal users too. If PayPal lower down its fee just for such small portion of unsatisfied customers, it may bring huge losses to the compa ny. Therefore, even though some users maybe price sensitive and bargain for a lower fees, PayPal will not make any changes as it would not greatly reduce its profit by losing a small portion of its users. The bargaining power of suppliers For PayPal, its suppliers are the banks and companies that provide financial networks in worldwide. The bargaining power of suppliers is low because with the internet, all companies has equal access to suppliers, and gravitate procurements to standardised products that reduce differentiation among competitors. standardised products or services makes the suppliers cannot charged high prices because there are too many similar products that other suppliers can provide. The banks, which are the suppliers to all online payment providers competing to each others with quality of services and low interest rates. Therefore, PayPal has many choices to choose for which suppliers is best suits with it. However, PayPal try to make deals with most of the local banks so it can have a wider range of services that can attract customers to use PayPal. It will not have to worry about the suppliers that charge excessive high price on unique products or service because if they do so, PayPal can just try to find another suppliers that charge reasonable price. Besides that, suppliers concentration to firm concentration ratio for PayPal is high because of its brand equity is high. Brand equity is brands power that derived from the goodwill and name recognition it has earned over time, and which turns into higher sales volume and higher profit margins against competing brands. PayPals high brand equity will keep attracts customers use PayPal services and this will lead to more services must be provided by the bank to PayPal. Banks will earn more profit by providing more services to it and indirectly makes the bargaining powers of suppliers become low as they need PayPal to generate more profit. Customer Relationship Management Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a widely-implemented strategy for managing a companys interactions with customers, clients and sales prospects. It includes one-to-one relationship between a customer and a seller which encourage customer participation in product development. CRM create one simple idea Treat different customers differently, which means that different customers are treat based on their different needs and different value to company. Besides that, CRM using information technology strategy aimed at identifying, acquiring, targeting and retaining the best mix of customers. CRM also describes a company-wide business strategy which including customer-interface departments as well as other departments. Furthermore, CRM also helps in understanding customer needs and building relationships with them and by providing the most suitable products with a high level of customer service. It integrates back and front office systems to create a database of customer contracts, purchases, information requested and technical support. This database helps the firm to present a unified face to its customer and improve the quality of the relationship. The primary goal of CRM is to improve long-term growth and profitability through a better understanding of customer behavior. There are 3 phases in which CRM support the relationship between a business and its customers are to acquire, enhance and retain. CRM can help a business acquire new customers through contact management, selling and fulfillment. A web enabled CRM combined with customer service tools offers customers service from a team of sales and service specialists, which offers customers the convenience of one-stop shopping. CRM software and databases enable a business to identify and reward its loyal customers and further develop its targeted marketing and relationship marketing initiatives. For any business to be successful employers need to look into various objectives which are beneficial for the customers. A good customer employee relationship always leads to positive outcomes for the business. CRM is a new introduction in E-commerce and played major rule in the development of e-business specially the CRM stands for customer relationship. It is a strategy used to learn more about customers needs and behaviors in order to develop stronger relationships with them. Good customer relationships are at the heart of business success. A primary objective of CRM is to provide the entire organization with a complete and 360-degree view of the customer, no matter where the information resides. The benefits of adopting CRM processes are develop better communication channels, create detailed profiles of individual customers, increased customer satisfaction, customer service and support and increased revenues of the organization. There are 3 types of CRM which are operational CRM, analytical CRM and collaborative CRM. Operational CRM describes the technology strategy of managing and interacting with customers across channels through client facing applications and integrated channel management. Operational CRM applications are technologies that enable sales force, marketing and customer care automat